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Dissertation Proposal Presentation

Transcript: The reason I have chosen this topic is because I feel that it is currently something that can be seen as an issue for todays children. Are they given enough freedom to explore and take risks? Or are we becoming increasingly more protective of our children and covering them in ‘bubble wrap’ trying to protect them. Risky and Adventurous Outdoor Play Literature Make note of any issues Hazards 'Risk, Challenge and Adventure in the Early Years' (Solly, 2015) Article 12- 'Respect the Views of the Child - Every child has the right to say what they think in all matters effecting them, and to havetheir views taken seriously' (UNCRC, 1989). 'UN Conventionon the Rights of the Child' (UNCRC, 1989) Broken equipment Wet or icy surface Broken shards Too many children on at a time Gates of the school open Not explaing rules to children Unhygeinic equipment What does the EYFS say? Consent Mosaic Approach Ontology Ethics References continued: British Educational Research Association (2011) (BERA) Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research [online]. London: BERA Available from: http://content.yudu.com/Library/A2xnp5/Bera/resources/index.htm?referrerUrl=http://free.yudu.com/item/details/2023387/Bera Accessed on: 7th Nov 2015 Department for Education (DfE) (2014) Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage [online]. London: The Stationery Office. Available from: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/AllPublications/Page1/DFE-00023-2012 Accessed on: 7th Nov 2015 Unicef (1989) UN Convention on the Rights of the Child [online] UK: Unicef Available from: https://www.unicef.org.uk/Documents/Publication-pdfs/betterlifeleaflet2012_press.pdf Accessed on: 07th Nov 2015 Risk Assessment 'Research Methods in Early Childhood' (Mukheri and Albon, 2015) Li References continued: Lindon, J. (2011) Too Safe For Their Own Good? - Helping children learn about risk and lifeskills. 2nd ed. London: Nbc. Mukherji, P. and Albon, D. (2015) Research Methods in Early Childhood- an Introductory Guide. 2nd ed. London: Sage. Solly, K. (2015) Risk, Challenge and Adventure in the Early Years - A practical guide to exploring and extending learning outdoors. Oxon: Routledge. Tovey, H. (2007) Playing Outdoors- Spaces and Places, Risk and Challenge. London: Open University Press. Little, H. (2006) Children’s risk taking behaviour: implications for early childhood policy and practice. International Journal of Early Years Education, 14(2), 141-154 'Research Methods in Education' (Cohen et al, 2011) Children shouold be given the facility to give their own full consent when research is being done (BERA, 2011) Risk assessment is a huge part of qualty development of risky and adventurous play, it is not to be ignored, but rather seen as an essential part in ensuring children's health, safety and wellbeing (Solly, 2015) Recognising the different languages and voices of children Removed the equipment or fix Gritted or dried or cornered off Remove safely and dispose of Explain numbers clearly Make sure gates are shut before you go outside Explain rules clearly Clean with anti-bacterial Epistemological View: Gathering information from children can be tricky. You are not necessarily going to get consistent and easy answers from them. There is a chance they could change their view or decide they don’t believe the same thing anymore. All settings must have their own risk assessment which is up to date and annually reviewed. They must also have a health and safety policy which is also checked and updated (Solly, 2015) A Hazard is something that will cause physical harm to the child and possibly others around them (Tovey, 2007) Interviews with the children about what risky and adventurous play means to them Questionnairs with parents and teachers on risky and adventurous play and what it means to them to compare with wht children's views Observations of drawings children are doing Putting things that have been drawn and discused into action Looking at there being a way to allow children to take part in more risky and adventurous play if the wish to, does health and safety and school policies allow this and how do children, parents and teachers feel about this A risk is children exploring something where the outcome is unknown (Little, 2006) Conclusion "There is a difference between a risk and a hazard" (Lindon, 1999) Once I have got consent from children's parents, I will be asking the children if they wish to take part. I will give them stamps, one for yes and the other for no. Research Paradigm "Children can 'speak' to adults through their play , thier actions and thier reactions" (Goldschmied and Jackson, 1994) Dissertation Proposal 'Too Safe For Their Own Good? Helping children learn about risk and lifeskills' (Lindon, 2011) References: Clark, A. and Moss, P. (2011) Listening to Young Children- the Mosaic Approach. 2nd ed. London: Ncb. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2011) Research Methods in Education. 7th ed. Oxon: Routledge. Gill, T.

Dissertation Proposal Presentation

Transcript: For my dissertation topic, I have chosen to look into the use of psychology in advertising. I have chosen this as I think that it is interesting to learn about different techniques used by advertising companies to sell us products, both obvious, and bordering on subliminal. Examples of psychology in advertising I intend to discover whether psychology in advertising is an innocent marketing tool or whether it is a form of manipulation, to play on the emotions of the consumer. The history of psychology in advertising How it has changed throughout the years Psychology to sell 'bad' products - tobacco/alcohol etc. Psychology to sell products to children - unethical? Whether psychology in advertising is manipulative or just a form of marketing. The future of psychology within advertising What is psychology in advertising? What is psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors with the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups. Psychology in Advertising Advertisements that play on your emotions and relationships (inducing feelings of inadequacy) How I will research Psychology in Advertising American Psychological Association - Papers/Journals Adbusters - Kalle Lasn, co-founder - Likened psychological methods to 'brainwashing experiments' Commercial Alert - Website about culture Soap, Sex and Cigarettes - Cultural history of American Advertising. Questionnaires about what people think when they see certain advertisements. Marlboro Ferrari Barcode What I intend to find out Psychology in advertising is the above study, except using the results to sell products. Any Questions? I have yet to decide on my dissertation topic, yet I feel that through wide research I will then focus on one aspect. Topics I will research Dissertation Proposal

dissertation proposal presentation

Transcript: ADAMS, A., DAS ROY, R. & MAHBUB, A. (1993) Participatory Methods to Assess Change in Health and Women’s Lives, B Joint Project in Matlab (Dhaka, BRAC-ICDDR). ADAMS, E. & INGHAM, S. (1998) Changing Places: children’s participation in environmental planning, (London, The Children’s Society). Armstrong, D. (2000) A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: implications for health promotion and community development Health and Place, 6, 319–327. Baxter, J. and Eyles, J. (1997) Evaluating qualitative research in social geography: establishing ‘rigour’ in interview analysis. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22, 505–525. Burgess, J. and Clark, J. 2009. Practitioner evaluations of participatory processes in environmental decision-making. In Jordan, A and Adger, N. (eds) Governance for Sustainability. (CUP Press), 159-190. Burgess, J., Clark, J., Davies, G., Eames, M., Mayer, S., Staley, K., Stirling, A. and Williamson, S. 2007. Deliberative Mapping: exploring a new analytic-deliberative methodology. Public Understanding of Science, 16(3), 299-322. Davies, G. and Burgess, J. 2004. Challenging the ‘view from nowhere’: citizen reflections on specialist expertise in a deliberative process. Health and Place 10, 349-361 Burgess, J., Bedford, T., Hobson, G., Davies, G. and Harrison, C.M. 2003. (Un) sustainable consumption. In Berkhout, F., Leach, M. Scoones, I. (eds) Negotiating Environmental Change: New Perspectives From Social Ccience. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 261-292 Clark, J., Burgess, J. and Harrison, C.M. 2000. "I struggled with this money business”: respondents' perspectives on contingent valuation. Ecological Economics, 33, 45-62 Burgess, J., Harrison, C.M. and Filius, P. 1998. Environmental communication and the cultural politics of environmental citizenship. Environment and Planning, A. 30, 1445-1460. Harrison, C.M., Burgess, J. and Filius, P. 1996. Rationalising environmental responsibilities: a comparison of lay publics in the UK and the Netherlands. Global Environmental Change, 6(3), 215-234. Burgess, J. and Harrison, C.M. 1993. The circulation of claims in the cultural politics of environmental change. In Hansen, A. (ed) The Mass Media and Environmental Issues. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 198-221. Burgess, J., Harrison, C.M. and Goldsmith, B. 1990. Pale shadows for policy: the role of qualitative research in environmental planning. In Burgess, R. (ed) Studies in Qualitative Methodology: vol. 2. London: JAI Press, 141-168. Burgess, J., Harrison, C.M. and Limb, M. 1988. People, parks and the urban green: a study of popular meanings and values for open spaces in the city. Urban Studies, 25, 455-473. Hargreaves, T., Burgess, J. Revealing the hidden actors in transitions: Exploring interdisciplinary research activities as part of transition processes’ Paper to the 1st European Conference on Sustainability Transitions: ‘Dynamics and Governance of Transitions to Sustainability’. Amsterdam, June 2009. Dickinson, J., Duma, S., Paulsen, H., Rilveria, L., Twiss, J. and Weinman, T. (2003) Community gardens: lessons learned from California healthy cities and communities. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1435–1438. Doyle, R. and Krasny, M. E. (2003) Participatory rural appraisal as an approach to environmental education in urban community gardens. Environmental Education Research, 9, 91–115 Ferris, J., Norman, C. and Sempik, J. (2001) People, land and sustainability: community gardens and the social dimension of sustainable development. Social Policy and Administration, 35, 559–568. Fusco, D. (2001) Creating relevant science through urban planning and gardening. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 860–877. GAVENTA, J. (1991) Toward a knowledge democracy: viewpoints on participatory research in North America, in: O. FALS-BORDA & M.A. RAHMAN (Eds) Action and Knowledge: breaking the monopoly with participatory action-research (New York, NY, Apex Press). Hancock, T. (2001) People, partnerships and human progress: building community capital. Health Promotion International, 16, 275–280. Holland, L. (2004) Diversity and connections in community gardens: a contribution to local sustainability. Local Environment, 9, 285–305. Irvine, S., Johnson, L. and Peters, K. (1999) Community gardens and sustainable land use planning: a case-study of the Alex Wilson Community Garden. Local Environment, 4, 33–46. Jamison, M. S. (1985) The joys of gardening: collectivist and bureaucratic cultures in conflict. The Sociological Quarterly, 26, 473–490. Krueger, R. A. (1988) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Sage, Newbury Park, CA. Kurtz, H. (2001) Differentiating multiple meanings of garden and community. Urban Geography, 22, 656–670. Mayo, M., Taylor, M. (2000) ‘Partnerships and power in community regeneration’ in Partnership Working: Policy and Practice edited by Balloch, S. & Taylor, M. (Sage: London) pp.20-41 Patel, I. C. (1991) Gardening’s socioeconomic impacts:

Dissertation Proposal Presentation

Transcript: The importance of Psychological skills for improving performance in 'Elite Level' Sport Climbing and Bouldering Define key aspects of title - 1st December 2012 Arrange athlete interviews - 24th December 2012 Explore and prepare body of research - 1st January 2013 Submit 500 word progress report - 5th January 2013 Conduct Athlete Interviews - February 15th 2013 Discuss personal experience relating to Interviews - February 25th Discuss relevant issues/weaknesses within interviews - March 1st 2013 Critically analyse and discuss athlete interviews - March 1st 2013 Produce Findings section March 25th 2013 Recommendation for further research - 1st April 2013 Submit Dissertation - May 2013 Thanks for Listening Any Questions? Improve my knowledge of the subject. Ultimately... What impact do psychological skills and techniques have on the performance of climbers? Library based research to support and iron out weaknesses within interviews Aims Potential lack of research directly relating to climbing Timetable Interviews with representative sample of 5 'elite level' climbers. Potential lack of access to 'elite level' climbers. Do 'elite level' climbers perceive this as being true? If there is a significant importance, what skills do they utilise? Potential for loss of focus and diversion from original aims. Substantial literature. Is there enough understanding by the general public? Problems? Introduction/Rationale Methodology Personal Experience added to interviews and research What level of importance do 'elite level' climbers place on psychological skills? Does this information relate to or reflect my own experiences? 'As physical as climbing is, it is even more mental' Horst (2010) A Mind Game? How does research literature support or reject their use of these skills?

Dissertation Proposal Presentation

Transcript: Call for support workers to work different, flexible hours. Rejects scientific methods WHY? Questionnaires Whitmore, E (2001) "People listened to What We Had to Say": Reflections on an Emancipatory Qualitative Evaluation. In Shaw, I and Gould, N (eds) Qualitative Research in Social Work. London:Sage I Think ... Carey, M (2012) Qualitative Research Skills for Social Work: Theory and Practice. Ashgate Publishing Limited: Surrey http://www.papworth.org.uk/downloads/disabilityintheunitedkingdom2012_120910112857.pdf Last accessed 15/11/2013 17:36 The Barriers to Participation in Mainstream Nightlife Activities for Learning Disabled Adults Registered Charity started by a punk rock band with disabled and non disabled members. Interviews My Research Questions. Found that lots of disabled people had to leave gigs and clubs early because of their support workers. Looks at important issues in society for disabled people. Participation -using community facilities and attending community events and activities alongside other members of society. References 1. What are staff attitudes around the participation of learning disabled adults in mainstream nightlife activities? Policies say that people should be free to choose how to live their lives and control over their lives. Questionnaires handed out physically and completed online. Practicalities My Sample Change staff attitudes. Interviewee's recruited via questionnaires - voluntary. Mainstream Nightlife Activities - Social life or entertainment activities that take place in society in the evening and late into the night. This can include, but is not limited to, the theatre, nightclubs and bars. Attitudes - a set way of thinking or feeling about something. Shearer, A (1984) Centre's for Independent Living in the US and the UK: An American Viewpoint. London:King's Fund Centre Defining the Terms Create policies and practices for change. Ethical Considerations More opportunities to access mainstream leisure and recreational activities and facilities. Use of Findings The Papworth Trust (2012) 82% of disabled adults experience barriers in accessing social activities in the community. As a result of this, they are significantly less likely to participate in nightlife activities. Anonymity and confidentiality of all participants in questionnaires and interviews. Bell, J (2005) Doing Your Research Project (4th Edition) Maidenhead: Open University Press Department of Health (2001) Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century. London: Department of Health Questionnaires handed out in the new year. Resources and Timescales The Papworth Trust (2012) 1 in 4 disabled people feel that they don't have choices or control over their daily lives. Kemmis, S and Wilkinson, M (1998) Participatory Action Research and the study of Practice. In Atweh, B; Kemmis, S and Weeks, P (eds) Action Research in Practice Partnerships for Social Justice in Education (pp21-36) New York:Routledge Cresswell (2009) Advocacy/Participatory View. Disabled people have the right to stay up late and have control over their lives. Support workers from residential/supported living environments in Manchester. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/attitude Last accessed 15/11/13 at 18:42 Valuing People Now (2009) As many questionnaires returned as possible! Improving the lives of disabled people by providing them with a voice. Sensitive questions 2. How do these attitudes create barriers to participation and opportunities for participation in mainstream nightlife activities? Choice and Control Interviews completed by April 1st. The set of ideas and beliefs behind my project. Small amount of follow up interviews from variety of organisations/living settings. Hard copies handed out from and returned to service where steering group is based so no postal costs. Stay Up Late Equality Act (2010) London: HMSO Cresswell, J (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. Sage Publications:London Encourage more research. Methods Supported by Mencap. Staff attitudes act as a barrier to inclusion. Working collaboratively. Equality Act (2010) services and public bodies should encourage participation in areas that are significantly low. Department of Health (2007) Putting people first: a shared vision and commitment to the transformation of adult social care, London: DH Voluntary participation Highlight barriers. Stalker, K and Harris, P (1998) The Exercise of Choice by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Literature Review. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 11(1) pp 60-76 Steering Group Methodology Other staff issues, like working hours, also act as a barrier. http://stayuplate.org/ Last accessed 15/11/13 17:38 Practical Issues - Other issues involving staff but not related to their attitudes. For example working hours, transport, training and pay. 3. How do practical issues relating to staff help to create barriers to

Dissertation proposal presentation

Transcript: By Charles Collins Where, on the income distribution, are the impacts of increased Microcredit to rural Thailand having effects? (Working title) Contextualising Intro The foundation of microfinance is typically centred on Professor Muhammad Yunus and his Grameen bank (both of whom won the Nobel peace prize in 2006) which originated in 1976 but was authorised as an independent bank in 1983. Microfinance is generally defined as “a credit methodology that employs effective collateral substitutes to deliver and recover short-term, working capital loans to micro entrepreneurs”. The Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) BAAC Thailand Practices both individual, group lending Counts 84.5% of rural households as its clients. Owned/run by the ministry of finance Founded in 1966, but in the capacity as known today happened in 1993 Thailand Village and Urban Revolving Fund program TVURF Began in 2001 under the election promise of Thaksin Shinawat as a Microfinance initiative It distributed to each village the same amount of money of one million Baht (US$24,000 in 2001 prices). Main features: 1) It was unanticipated 2) Each village received the same sum of capital 3) Its eligibility criteria allowed any household to opt into the scheme Relevant Literature Lit Review 1) Microfinance: Its Impact, Outreach, and Sustainability - Robert Lensink, Niels Hermes 2) Microfinance in Northeast Thailand: Who Benefits and How Much? Brett E. Coleman 3) Credit Availability and Internal Migration: Evidence from Thailand - Cecilia Poggi 4) Does the Village Fund matter in Thailand? Evaluating the impact on incomes and spending - Jirawan Boonperm 5) Microenterprise Credit Programs: Deja Vu. Adams and Von Pischke The Townsend Thai data set Data There is 21 years (1997-2017) of panel data on 960 households in 64 rural and semi-urban villages across four provinces of Thailand. Data is collected by the Thai Family Research Project and secondary data archived by the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce (UTCC). It's an unbalanced Panel on the Household level data however they do attempt to always resurvey the same households where possible. Due to its size it is complex to work with. Discrete variables coded as odd numbers, not traditional 0-1 (2,3...,n) Methodology Methodology To deal with self-seletion i will employ a Instrumental variable approach Borrowing is instrumented using the inverse number of households per village at the beginning of the policy to capture potential credit availability. RIF will be employed to evaluate where the impact of microcredit is being seen on the income distribution Assessing the impact of this fund on household expenditure inequality, investigating the effects at different points of the unconditional distribution Timeline • 30th June – Finish cleaning data and merging data sets • 6th July – Make sure reading for literature review is complete and begin drafting • 24th July - Finish identification techniques and estimation • 30th July - Draft introduction • Beginning of August - Finalise 1st draft and send to supervisor for feedback • Throughout August - Work on any corrections or revisions as necessary • 3rd of September – Dissertation hand-in date • 4th of September - Recovery Work Schedule

Dissertation Proposal Presentation

Transcript: June 17, 2013 1 in 88 children diagnosed with Autism (CDC, 2012) 1 in 76 deaf children also identified with ASD (Szymanski and Brice, 2008) 1 in 59 deaf children also identified with ASD (Szymanski, Brice, Lam, and Hotto,2012) 4 in 60 deaf children also identified with ASD in Region 4 RDSPD self-contained classes Incidence of co-occurring disabilities of hearing impaired and ASD on the rise! What is being used most commonly in programs across the country to best meet their needs? Research Question Introductory email sent. Electronic survey sent to program directors. Placement of Students with Hearing Impairments and ASD Are students with these unique needs best met in deaf classrooms with autism itinerant support or autistic classes with auditory impaired itinerant teacher support? Theoretical Framework Behaviorism July 1, 2013 Applied Behavior Analysis Professional development is lacking and needs to be created. What's the problem? Survey ends with the aim of at least 40 respondents. Refer to page 27. Refer to pages 21-24. Refer to page 7. Peer Interaction Skills Training August 5, 2013 Refer to page 28-32. Refer to page 8-9 Reminders are sent to nonrespondents. What instructional setting best addresses the needs of students with co-occurring disabilities of Autism Spectrum Disorder and hearing impairment? June 3, 2013 There is no consistency among programs across the country. In Home Behavior Training Placement for Students with Co-occurring Disabilities of Hearing Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder Proposal Angela Terry Doctoral Student Jones International University Summary Refer to page 11. Methodology Deaf Education 59.9% of deaf children were receiving their instruction in a regular school setting with hearing students and an additional 17.4% received their instruction in a self-contained classroom on a campus with hearing students (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2008). Reasons for these changes can be attributed to several factors including the increased number of students being implanted with cochlear implants, total communication used in self-contained and regular school settings, and the increased focus on academics comparable to hearing students Deaf programs must work to increase the hearing impaired students’ language at all levels and in all areas. Autism Education Most recent approaches have been more eclectic and are correlated between approach and psychological theories about autism (Tutt, Powell, & Thornton, 2006). Ivar Lovaas – a pioneer in the field of autism and home-based intensive behavioral programs Education of Children with Hearing Impairments & ASD Steinberg (2008) identified two needs of education programming these children need: one that identifies concerns early and one that considers both the deafness and the autism so that appropriate interventions can be designed. ABA use is supported by Szymanski et al (2012) Progress on goals and objectives related to language/communication and behavior/social skills Success on state assessment Graduation rate Class for Students with Autism with AI Specialist Support Chapters 4 & 5 completed. Current programs and programming need to be reviewed to find what works for these students. Data is reviewed & analysis completed. Current Trends in Special Education Class for Hearing Impaired With Autism Specialist Support July 2, 2013

Dissertation Proposal Presentation

Transcript: ENGINEERS: A PHEONOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE EXPERIENCES OF MALE PERSISTENCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION Introduction Research Problem “Improving education in math and science is about producing engineers and researchers and scientists and innovators who are going to help transform our economy and our lives for the better.” – President Barack Obama Statement of the Problem Of great importance to the future of the United States economy is for higher education to produce and graduate more engineering students. There is a significant demand for engineers in the country and currently, the largest population of engineering students is male. Male students are not persisting and are not graduating at the rate they should. Kuzmak (2010) researched female engineers and concluded that pre-entry attributes, institutional experiences, and academic interactions (Tinto, 1994) with peers and faculty positively impact persistence in the engineering discipline. She recommended, in 2010, focusing on fewer attributes of Tinto’s (1994) retention model.... She further recommended the research be extended beyond females and minority students... Purpose Statement The purpose of this phenomenological study will be to understand persistence for male engineering students in higher education. At this state in the research, persistence is defined as the act of continuing steadily despite problems, obstacles, or difficulties (Tinto, 1994). Research Questions 1. What role do academic systems influences, which include academic performance and faculty interactions, play in males’ student persistence in engineering? 2. What role do social system influences, which include peer interactions and extracurricular activities, play in males’ student persistence in engineering? Literature Review Mann (1907) researched the present conditions of engineering education, sought out problems within engineering education, and provided a detailed summary of solutions. The Wickenden Study (1920) “was the most extensive ever undertaken of engineering education, making an effort to involve every American engineering school, representative of American industry, and the major professional engineering societies in all stages from data gathering to analysis to implementation of recommendations” (Marcus, 2005, p. 61). The Grinter Report (1955) recommended landmark enhancements to engineering curriculum. Those included the development of basic sciences in the curriculum, engineering analysis, design, and creative thinking (www.abet.org). Accreditation and Curriculum. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) provides strict guidelines for baccalaureate level degree programs in engineering. Criterion 1. Students. Criterion 2. Program Educational Objectives. Criterion 3. Student Outcomes. Criterion 4. Continuous Improvement. Criterion 5. Curriculum. Criterion 6. Faculty. Criterion 7. Facilities. Criterion 8. Institutional Support. The population of engineering students was 420,685 in 2010, while 81.9% are males and females make up only 18.1% of the population (Gibbons, 2010). (Seymour and Hewitt (1997) found the difficulty of the majors, ...grades and grade point averages were listed by 23% of the students as to why students changed majors ...the weed-out mentality in S.M.E. majors to be prominent and students felt that the academic system was set up to get them to change majors... A phenomenological study attempts “to understand the meaning of events and interactions to ordinary people in particular situations” (Bogdan & Biklen, 2003). The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to understand the persistence of male undergraduate engineering students in higher education. The data will be collected through one-on-one, in person interviews...this will provide an opportunity to ask open-ended questions and gather specific stories and perspectives from the participants (Creswell, 2009). The findings will be written in narrative form and will seek to bring the participants’ stories to life. The findings will be listed under three analyses: the participants, the extracurricular inventory, and the interviews. Questions!?! Methodology

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