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Transcript: Survivorship Curve Before and After Influenza Vaccine Cady Houghton Procedure Background Experimental Design Methods Research Question 1) A data base of cemeteries was looked up to find death dates and information. 2) From the data base information was put into a google drive document. 3) 40 people dying before the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into one chart showing the ages of death. 4) 40 people dying after the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into another chart also showing ages of death. 5) Both charts of groups of people were converted into a life history table. 6) From each life history table the data was put into another chart to make two survivorship curve charts. 7) The survivorship curve charts were put into one survivorship curve chart to show the difference in curves. A laptop was used for this lab. If the influenza vaccine works then if we compare the survivorship curve of before and after the vaccine it will show people living longer because the vaccine will be decreasing the death rate. The independent variable in this experiment is the influenza vaccine. The dependent variable is the death rate in this experiment. The exponential variables in this experiment are the other disease epidemics during the time period the data was chosen from. The control is the survivorship curve before the influenza vaccine and the experimental is the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine. The survivorship curves of before and after the influenza vaccine was created are both Type I survivorship curves. They also have the caracteristics for K-selected species. While they are both Type I and K-selected species, the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine was created had a decrease in death rates between 20 and 70 years of age of about .5 #/1,000 surviving. Then, towards the 75 and 90 years range, the #/1000 surviving leveled out and became extremely similar in curves. Did people die younger before the influenza vaccine was created? In comparing survivorship curves a Log10 scale is used for its ability to show you greater numbers in a more readable way and to show same mortality with the same curve when two scales are put together. In a Log10 scale there are three Types of information. The first, Type 1, are mainly humans. Type I survivorship curves are characterized by high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survivorship in later life. Type 2 is mainly birds and Type 3 is mainly reptiles. Within these Types are two categories of species, K-Selected, or Equilibrium, species and R-Selected, or Opportunist, species. K-Selected species usually have stable resources and a stable environment, and this is usually what humans are categorized as. R-Selected species are usually whose population size tends to fluctuate greatly in reaction to variations in the environment. Comparing the survivorship curves, defined as a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving at each age for a given species or group cohort, before and after the influenza vaccine was created will show if the vaccine helped increase the population. Before the 1940s when the influenza vaccine was created, the epidemic was particularly deadly in US Army training camps, where the death rate was as high as 80% in some camps. Death rate is usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. The US military was getting hit with influenza the most forcing them to developed the first approved vaccine for influenza, which was used in the Second World War. Studying this specific survivorship curve will also help to tell if their were more survival rates in the US military during the time. Results With the original research question in mind, before the influenza vaccine was created people were dying younger. This question was answered by the survivorship curve graph comparing the curves before and after the influenza vaccine. As the graph shows between 20 and 70 years of age there is a significant difference in curves, meaning that the death rate before the vaccine in that time period was increased more than after the vaccine was created. From that specific area of the graph it can be concluded that people were dying younger before the influenza vaccine was created, thus the hypothesis was correct. For future study it would be interesting to see the survivorship curve in the US military before and after the vaccine not just the population in general. Because the US military was the one who invented it because they were the one being impacted with the death rate from the influenza epidemic the most, the survivorship curve would have a chance of being more predominant. Graph Clear Digital Media, Inc. (1997-2011). Cemetery Records Online. October 1, 2013, Genealogical Gleanings. (1997-2004). Plagues and Diseases. October 3, 2013, Introduction

Dental Presentation

Transcript: First 3 years of College build resume by doing service, leadership, Shadowing, work experience etc. April-June Study for DAT Submit AADSAS application June ~15 June/July Fill out secondary Applications wait wait wait Interview in Feburary Accepted in March COST TO APPLY Dat Study Materials $500 -old text books from gen chem and ochem, dat destoyer, kaplan text book, etc. Application cost $1,598 Secondary App. $600 Interviews $1,770 Two interviews Total: $5,068 Items to pay for upon acceptance Tuition Deposit $2,450 Moving $2,200 Utility Deposits $120 New ID $20 renters policy Varies school fees.... Varies Housing Deposit $650 Total: $5,555 Total Cost To date:$10,623 Pros: Small Class Size. 38 Students Six International Enter clinic early-Second semester of school Patient base grows each year Simulation of actual dental office High student to faculty ratio Mid-range tuition cost: $57,100 Boards Free babies Each child receives a check each month from the government Don't have to apply through AADSAS Tuition includes all fees ADVICE Cry Pray to your Deity Offer sacrafices Major selection isn't as important as good grades. Submit application early Even if you have not taken the DAT Build a good application not just good DAT score and GPA There's no perfect formula to get you in Work experience, shadow opportunities Good letters of Recommendation Save your money now! Questions? My stats DAT Score First time I got 16 Second time 17 PAT 19 Total Science 18 Overall GPA 3.25 However Last 2 years I had 3.6-4.0 GPA Biology Major I've taken almost every -ology offered on campus. So lots of Science course work. Spencer Knight I've always been a saver. Use Credit card to pay for it, then I could pay more than the minimum balance and avoid a finance change. Allowing me to spread the cost out over two months, instead of one. Utah State University Go into dentistry because you love the field, not because of the money you hope to make one day! Average Utah dentist makes about $120k a year. Average pharmacist makes more than that! How did I handle the cost? Beacon of Hope Timeline My Journey Canada EH? MY SCHOOL My Fake it until you make it! Cons: International student Cost of living Cell phone Car insurance Distance DalHousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Dental Presentation

Transcript: University of Colorado, Denver School of Dental Medicine The Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of the University of Southern California University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine West Coast Pomona, CA Diversity Arizona School of Dentistry and Oral Health Average GPA: 3.5 Arizona School of Dentistry and Oral Health What about research opportunities?? GPA: 3.2 American Student Dental Association Handbook 2013 Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine Rutgers School of Dental Medicine Do I want to stay in CALIFORNIA? School's website *Research schools I have never heard of* PAT: 20 Clinical experience + Specialty Programs Mesa, Arizona What I am looking for in a dental school: New York University College of Dentistry State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Dental Medicine - Orthodontics only State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Dental Medicine AA DAT: 19 +Community Outreach Average GPA: 3.0-3.5 Average DAT: 20-22 Small class size < 100 PAT: 19.1 Specialties Dental School Presentation University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine + Clinical Experience - Specialty programs * Interprofessional Education Class size: 68 September 28, 2016 Rozelle Laquindanum Dental Schools I'm Interested in: + Community dentistry Buffalo, New York University of Michigan School of Dentistry Average GPA: 3.31 AA DAT: 18.4 EAST COAST???? Gathering Information Community dentistry +Clinical Experience Reading DAT: 21 Class size: 76 Western University of Health Science College of Dental Medicine "Interior" of U.S. Class size: 90 Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine East Coast AA DAT: 20.5

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