Transcript: From the Greek kruptos ,"hidden or secret"; and graphein , "writing, or study" , is the study and use of methods to secure communication from third parties. The main ciphers used in this time were simple encryption that would jumble the order of letters by assigning a numerical number to them and shifting the order a head by any some of number. That type of cypher was called the Caesar cypher. Cryptography and the World eucuzqjvfvjb Security systems are never 100% secure. Because of this people are usually hired to test out active security system to see if they can break them. That also means that someone who happens to be smarter than the person who created the security system could possibly break the cipher or discover the key granting them access. A look back on the history of Cryptography You're probably thinking, " Hey if people can just get a few computers together they can easily access encrypted data", well no. When data is encrypted it requires a lot less CPU and memory to create than to break. Which makes cryptanalysis a very inefficient method of breaking ciphers. It would take a lot of programming and p flops of data execution to be able to crack a cipher. WWII One incidence out of many involves Gary Mckinnon, a Scotish systems adminstrator and hacker. He hacked over 97 United States military and NASA computers. Deleted important operating system files off a 2000 computers rendering them in operable for 24hrs (until the issue was resolved) and he left some insults including "US foreign policy is akin to Government-sponsored terrorism these days … It was not a mistake that there was a huge security stand down on September 11 last year … I am SOLO. I will continue to disrupt at the highest levels …" Hacking Cryptography vs Cryptanalysis Public Key Some of these include Affine, Keyed Caesar, Gronsfeld, and Morse Code. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLOPS#Measuring_performance Whybgltizksb Cryptography can be as simple as reversing the order of the alphabet to rooms filled with computers running complex algorithms. However many people in that time did not know how to read so the encryption were more of a just in case. This was called cryptanalysis. The art of breaking an encryption without having the key. This was crucial in the war because the speed at which they could break the ciphers means that they could plan their attacks more efficiently and get their men is position faster and ultimately be ahead of the enemy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography Their are many of these simple types of crytohraphy techniques all over the internet and are therefore easy for anyone to learn. Public Key Cryptography is a method of ensuring that only a certain group of people have access to information that you put out into the world. The plain text you put out is encrypted with your public key and is decrypted by the recipients private key. Cryptography and Computers Cryptography sole use was to encrypt messages. The use of computers gave way to more complex algorithms and made it possible to encrypt data that could be presented in binary form. Woops didn't notice this was here. Back then they only needed to ensure that anybody that had possession of the message before it go to its destination were not able to read it. Classic Cryptography -.-. .-. -.-- .--. - --- --. .-. .- .--. .... -.-- With computers now heavily involved in decryption it was only a matter of time before they were used in encryption With encryption there is decryption and with the advent of computers it became faster to break encryptions. Cryptography is also utilized in the Kama Sutra for lovers to communicate without discovery.
Transcript: CRYPTO Crypto: Part 1 by Support Team History 31st of October 2008 Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System by Satoshi Nakamoto A Bit of History Idea: deflationary currency To create a currency which can't lose its value by the will of central authority. When the system stops issuing coins, the value increases. 21st of January 2009 The first Bitcoin Transaction 100 BTC by Satoshi Nakamoto New Cryptocurrencies Namecoin, Litecoin, PPCoin, Novacoin, Ripple and many others Crypto Digital money protected by cryptographic technology Цифровая валюта, защищенная с помощью криптографических технологий Each unit is changing the encrypted code What is Crypto? Note: Fiat Money is a currency established as money by government regulation or law. Most currencies were based on physical commodities such as gold or silver, but fiat money is based solely on the faith and credit of the economy. Blockchain BLOCKCHAIN Crypto currency was based on the blockchain technology. It is a database which is stored on many computers connected with each other online. If a computer adds its info >>> all other participants of the chain also reflect the changes How transactions usually work 100 RUB 97 RUB In order to store the information all transactions are merged into units. These units are cryptographically and chronologically between each other into a chain through special mathematical mechanisms. A new unit is always joined the end of the line and it automatilly embeded in in the existing database of all other computers. It helps to get the information about all transactions made before. Blockchain idea It's impossible to change a unit without changing the data of all other units. Software continuously issues some new coins. They are just digital addresses and balances stored in the public database of transacitons - Blockchain. You will find the details here http://lurkmore.so/images/a/a8/Bitcoin_Transactions_Explained_Wide_PEREVOD.jpg Transaction sample Advantages of Blockchain 1. Transparent and publicly accessible ledger that allows us to securely transfer the ownership of units of value using public key encryption and proof of work methods. 2. No third party. The technology uses decentralized consensus to maintain the network, which means it is not centrally controlled by a bank, corporation, or government If you send cryptocurrency\info through blockchain, the proof of the transaction cannot be changed or falsified, because it is confirmed by thousands of computers all over the world. 3. The information is available for every user at any time. 4. The process is faster and cheaper. 5. Mathematical guarantee So... why is it so good? Blockchain can be used to transform financial systems in the crypto encryption. Wire transfers can be performed through blockchain. Blockchain may make the process safer and more reliable. Russian Experts: cryptocurrency help to overcome economic sanctions. Why are the banks so interested in blockchain? Mining Where do crypto coins come from? The process of creating of new units mentioned before is MINING. Mining helps the system work well and it helps miners earn money. "To mine crypto" means to confirm transactions in blockchain and gets a reward from the system and participants. 1. In order to add a new unit to the chain, we should generate a special cryptographic signature for it. 2. A user provides his computing power (вычислительная мощность) for the generation 3. He gets a reward which is cryptocurrency. Reward: 1 unit = 12,5 BTC ($ 48 812) 1 unit = 5 ETH ($ 1530) Maximum volume is usually stated by the developers from the very begining. Limited Issue of cryprocurrencies сontrols their inflation and gradually increases their value. Some coins (for example, PPCoin, Novacoin, Sifcoin etc) do not have fixed maximum. In this case inflation depends on the production rate and current turnover of the monetary units. Currency issue The issue of cryptocurrency is not infinite. Let's say there are special lids. Limited edition. It's impossible to fake them and you cannot go to a shop and buy lemonade, because it isn't produced any more. So you can just wander about, watch your step and hope you will see a lid. The edition was limited. So... demand is growing, price is rising. Cooperation. It was easy to find the lids at first, but the process is becoming more and more dificult. People have to сooperate, work in groups and spend much time and resources to find a lid. Lids can be exchanged for different needed things. Some people lay in a stock, because they are waiting for the price increase. Let's talk about lemonade Lids 1. Choose crypto 2. Choose equipment (software, internet with a good ping level, server) 3. Choose a wallet where the currency is going to be stored 4. Do the rest and get the coins :) Success of mining depends on the computation power of the computer. The higher it is, the more likely you will get a reward How to mine? Yes, you can But there are too many big competitors these days.
Transcript: Presented by Jaxson Benningfield Investing In Cryptocurrency My Research Question How has cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin, affected the lives and money allocation of American investors since its creation in 2009? I reccomend Investing in Cryptocurrencies because of the high chance to make money and to learn about new technology and currency. My Research Question Prices That is the increase of the Price of Bitcoin from the lowest point, to the highest. The prices of Cryptocurrency have been trailing back recently after their peak in late December and Early January. 25000000% Link Link https://coinmarketcap.com/ Allocation This visualization shows the total money allocation, of all cryptocurrency. The spread of cryptocurrency https://coin360.io/ Link Link History Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency made by Satoshi Nakamoto, on January 3, 2009. Market Cap The Market Cap of Cryptocurrency has soared above the biggest U.S. companies in the world. The Market cap has fallen from that peak, around 50%. Now there are only a couple of compnies still bigger than the cryptocurrency market. Market Capitalization https://coinmarketcap.com/charts/ Link Link Only a couple cents could get you a Bitcoin back when it was created now it takes thousands of dollars. Regret Regret http://fortune.com/2017/12/12/bitcoin-historical-investment-values/ Link Link At its Birth, Bitcoin was $0.08 and if you only put in $100, which is what someone would put in to a very risky investment, you could have bought 1250 Bitcoins. At the peak, Those Bitcoins would be worth around ... $$$ $$$ $31.25 Billion $31.25 Billion And that is only one cryptocurrency. ... Conclusion Investing in Cryptocurrency is a great opportunity to make money, learn, and understand one of the newest technologies. Investors have poured more into cryptocurrencies than almost the top American companies. The gains have been more than 25,000,000%. And I have an idea that the gains are not over yet! Conclusion Works Cited Coinmarketcap, coinmarketcap.com/charts “Cryptocurrency Market State Visualization.” Cryptocurrency Market State Visualization, cryptomaps.org/. Desjardins, Jeff. “All the World's Money and Markets in One Visualization.” The Money Project, 26 Oct. 2017, money.visualcapitalist.com/worlds-money-markets-one-visualization-2017/. “Bitcoin Regrets: How Much $100 Would Be Worth Today If You Invested Earlier.” Fortune, fortune.com/2017/12/12/bitcoin-historical-investment-values/. “Stock Screener.” Stock Screener - Search and Filter Stocks on TradingView, www.tradingview.com/screener/. Works Cited
Transcript: Facts I asked him what medicine I would need to take and he said that most people didn't need medicine but some responded to certain antibiotics. Crypto The symptoms for crypto are: frequent watery diarrhea, Fatigue,Fever,Nausea, and Vomiting. Post sickness The biggest known outbreak of Crypto was in Milwaukee in 1993. I am sick, the doctor said I had cryptosporiousis. The doctor made me give him a stool sample also known as a feces sample and he then diagnosed me with crypto. To get the stool sample he made me poop in a cup like a bucket. I asked him how to prevent my friends and family getting it. He told me that the way I could avoid it was to boil all drinking water before drinking it. Facts Continued I new that I was sick when I had frequent watery diarrhea, I was really tired, and I was frequently dehydrated. The risk factors are; backpackers, swimmers, people who drink dirty water. Treatment The way that it is spread is through a parasite in dirty water. It goes into your intestines and reproduces, so that your intestines cant absorb food/water. The complications are; malnutrition severe dehydration, wasting inflammation of bile duct, and inflammation in the liver or pancreas. The risk factor is, children parents of infected kids, child care workers, animal handlers, and those who engage in anal-to-oral sexual activities. How to get it Bye Immunity If you have an immune compromising disease then you need to wash hands frequently, avoid cattle,avoid untreated water, and thoroughly wash anything going into your mouth. The only known cure for it is that some people will respond to certain antibiotics. so I asked my doctor if there was a way to gain immunity, He said no. How to prevent Now after a week my doctor told me that I was not sick anymore. my doctor told me that I was no longer sick after a week of care. facts AGAIN I asked him how I got it and he asked me if I went swimming in the lake this weekend. I told him that I had. He then announced that was why I was sick. He told me that it was a waterborne parasite.
Transcript: What, How & Why CRYPTOCURRENCY Workshop Money 101 Money 101 Commodity Money Commodity Money Value is defined by the intrinsic value of the commodity itself value from a government order (i.e. fiat) Fiat Money depends for its value on the confidence that it will be generally accepted as a medium of exchange Fiduciary Money claims against financial institutions that can be used to purchase goods or services Commercial Bank Money Cryptocurrency Crypto(graphy) + currency Cryptocurrency To secure the system (e.g. to prevent, hacks, double payments, etc.) they use cryptography. Miners 21 - 22 m. BTC: limit Supply you can only find the input value corresponding to an output value by random trials a small change to a message should change the hash value so extensively that the new hash value appears uncorrelated with the old hash value you cannot find two inputs with the same output value easily cryptographic secure hash function Hashrate Bitcoin fee and transaction time oddity Is it another 'bubble'? Help Immediate Settlement Lower fees Identity theft Help Access to Everyone Decentralisation Recognition at universal level Help Distributing Aid Identity Remittances Help Long way to go
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Transcript: Presented by Máté Zsófia Cryptocurrencies What are cryptocurrencies? What are cryptocrrencies? digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange uses cryptography to: a, secure transactions b, control the creation of additional units c, verifiy the transfer of assets Publicity Publicity seen as a challenge for the central banks: --> loss of consumer confidence in fiat currencies --> harder to control the important functions of monetary and exchange rate policy (e.g. giving out credits) --> bitcoin ATMs have been installed since 2014, mostly in the United States --> Dogecoin: charitable organization Legality Legality varies from country to country still undefined or changing some coins are classified differently if declared as money: subjected to capital gain tax in the US: virtual assets - Frauds may occur - untrackable, therefore can be used for criminal activities - used by darknet users Initial Coin Offering a fundraiser for a new cryptocurrency venture /vállalkozás/ allows the startups to bypass rigorous and regulated capital-raising processes (required by venture capitalists and banks) percentage of coins to early backers -- for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies e.g. Bitcoin, Ethereum ICO-s ICO-s Around the world Around the world Decentralized: the system works without a central repository or a single administrator -> maintained by users all around the world Bitcoin Bitcoin a worldwide cryptocurrency and digital payment system invented by an unknown person or group under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto open source-software uses peer-to-peer system transactions: verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger, A.K.A. the blockchain price at the moment is $9650 (for one coin) How it works How it works -decentralized: public ledger -transactions: inputs + outputs no transaction fees -produced by mining (takes approx. 10 minutes) ->proof of work -after each block: 12.5 bitcoin reward -limit: 21 million bitcoins by 2140 -> artificial scarcity -wallets are basically the ledgers they contain your public and private keys Simplified explanation Simplified explanation Sites Sites As a market As a market Classified as a digital asset as a currency: 3 useful qualities -hard to earn -limited in supply -easy to verify by 2015: more than 100,000 merchants accepted bitcoin (e.g. Paypal, Microsoft, Dell, Newegg) can be used as an investment -> high risk - high reward if the price starts to fall rapidly: similar to hyperdeflation - holders try to cash out immediately but they can't because the blockchain slows the process -> meanwhile the price falls further -> another solution: converting bitcoins into other cryptocurrencies (+1000 of them) Competitors Competitors Other cryptocurrencies, known as altcoins: IOTA USD price: $0.9835 ETH USD price: $475.17 REQ USD price: $0.068778 LTC USD price: $89.32 DOGE USD price: $0.001948 NXT USD price: $0.214042 ARK USD price: $3.73 The future The future
Transcript: Blockchain & Its Implications: The Market's New Era? A Rough Introduction Here is where we aim to get you familiar to some terms that will be used throughout the presentation, and other things that are useful to know. Feel free to ask us questions if there's anything you don't quite get! A Rough Introduction What Are Cryptocurrencies Cryptocurrencies Cryptocurrencies, otherwise known as cryptos, are digital currencies. Just like "flat" money (dollars, euros, etc.), they have a certain value, and you can use them to buy items. The only difference, obviously, is that they're digital, and not physical. They're secure and impossible to counterfeit due to the cryptography that is involved. It’s decentralized and more efficient. You own your cryptocurrency and no bank or government is needed to issue the money, nor is any middleman needed to transfer your funds. That can make your transactions cheaper and quicker. It helps people without access to traditional banking become part of the worldwide financial system. It’s programmable money which offers many more options for how it can be used and adapted to one’s needs. What Is Bitcoin? Bitcoin is the most famous cryptocurrency in the market It was the foundation for all other cryptocurrencies. It was launched on 2009 and by now it makes part of around 50% of all the cryptocurrency's market's value. It is a very limited currency, consisting of only 21 million units in total, 18.7 million of which being in the market. Satoshi Nakamoto was the founder of the coin (more about him later on). Bitcoin What is a Blockchain? A blockchain is a type of database, or a collection of information, stored in so-called blocks connected through complex cryptographic protocols. These make it almost impossible to compromise the data stored on the blockchain. This is because any changes to one block immediately corrupt the data in other blocks, so it’s obvious that someone has tried to change something. This makes blockchain tamper-evident. Blockchain What is Ethereum? Ethereum is a blockchain platform with its own cryptocurrency, called Ether (ETH) or also Ethereum, and its own programming language, called Solidity. The blockchain network Ethereum is a decentralized public ledger for verifying and recording transactions. The network's users can create, publish, monetize, and use applications on the platform, and use its Ether cryptocurrency as payment. Insiders call the decentralized applications on the network. Ethereum What Are NFT's In the simplest terms, NFTs transform digital works of art and other collectibles into one-of-a-kind, verifiable assets that are easy to trade on the blockchain. That adds value to the so called "tokens", which can then be traded between people, with payments of cryptocurrencies. Come to think about it, it's much like trading pokemon cards! NFT's Crypto's Impact on Our World This is how cryptos have settled on our economy, and how they've affected it: Crypto's Impact on Our World Blockchain'sTimeline Blockchain's Timeline Blockchain technology R3 is formed and forms consotrium of over 40 legacy financial companies for implementing blockchain technology. Ethereum blockchain is created. 1/4/2013 The first bitcoin purchase: 10,000 BTC purchased. 2014 2010 2016 Bug in Ethereum DAO code, which was exploited, attacked and terminated 1991-2008 Stuart Haber and Scott Stornetta work on the first blockchain. Bitcoin Marketplace surpasses 1 billion Vitalik Buterin releases Ethereum whitepaper 2009 Satoshi Nakamoto releases Bitcoin's whitepaper. Bitcoin's Timeline Bitcoin's Timeline The first country in history to adapt "Bitcoin" as an official currency for the nation, "El Salvador". The Bitcoin foundation was launched, this was made as a foundation to control "Bitcoin" and make it safer. After having an impressive growing in the last year, Bitcoin goes from $1000 on January 1st to $10 000 on December 1st, breaking the amazing barrier of $10 000 3/1/2009 28/1/2021 This event known as "The musk effect" was the first big movement done by The owner of Tesla. Elon Musk added the #Bitcoin to his tweeter making Bitcoin grow almost a 11% over a day. 1/4/2013 Bitcoin was launched for the first time Bitcoin hits the $100 barrier for the first time 1/12/2017 11/06/2021 22/9/2012 Ethereum Crypto`s timelines Bitcoin Recommendation: https://www.coindesk.com/price/bitcoin Pros & Cons Pros & Cons Pros Cons High volatility It's amongst one the safest currencies Easy access for investment Limited Use Limited supply/Deflationary Currency Very complicated for beginners Is not related to any government/nation Low fees in transactions Key Players Main Supporters Elon Musk Satoshi Nakamoto Vitalik Buterin -Elon Musk: Elon Musk is an entrepreneur and business magnate known as one of the richest men on the planet. Musk is the owner of the famous car company "Tesla", and since the beginning of 2021 he made a big impact on cryptocurrencies. The market's charts have been heavily affected by
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