Transcript: Evidence of global warming Clearing forests also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide. On top of that, plants and trees use it to grow. Worldwide deforestation means we don’t have as many trees to absorb the extra carbon dioxide.This means more of it stays in the atmosphere, trapping more heat. One of the most immediate and obvious effects of global warming is the increase in temperatures around the world. The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Effects of global Warming Evidence of global warming Images of global warming Images of global warming Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the "greenhouse effect"1 — warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Certain gases in the atmosphere block heat from escaping. Since 1970, the area of snow cover in the United States has steadily decreased, according to the EPA, and the average temperature of permafrost (soil that's at or below freezing temperature) has grown warmer.One of the most dramatic effects of global warming is the reduction in Arctic sea ice: In 2012, scientists saw the smallest amount of Arctic ice cover ever recorded. Most analyses project that, within a matter of years, the Arctic Sea will be completely ice-free during the summer months. Since record keeping began in 1895, the hottest year on record for the 48 contiguous U.S. states was 2012. Worldwide, 2012 was also the 10th-warmest year on record, according to NOAA. And nine of the warmest years on record have occurred since 2000. According to NOAA, 2013 tied with 2003 as the fourth warmest year globally since 1880. Detailed measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels have been taken continuously for more than 50 years. The data show that CO2 levels have steadily increased every year. Today they are 25 percent higher than in 1957.What's more, scientists have detailed records of past CO2 levels from ice core studies, which show that CO2 levels are higher today than at any point since our distant ancestors began migrating out of Africa 800,000 years ago. Causes of global warming The heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19th century. There is no question that increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause the earth to warm. ice cores from greenland, antarctica shows that the earth reaponds to change in the greenhouse levels. Images of global warming Images of global warming Global warming is projected to have a number of effects on the oceans. Ongoing effects include rising sea levels due to thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and ice sheets, and warming of the ocean surface, leading to increased temperature stratification. Images of global warming Effects of global Warming Effects of global Warming Declining sea ice is one of the most visible signs of global warming on our planet. Since 1979, Arctic sea ice extent in September (when the annual minimum is reached) has declined by over 30 percent, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. The ice extent has been declining in other seasons, when its not supposed to. Evidence of global warming Effects of global Warming Evidence of global warming Extreme weather is an effect of global warming. While experiencing some of the hottest summers on record, much of the United States also has been experiencing colder than normal winters.Changes in climate can cause the jet stream to migrate south, bringing with it cold, Arctic air. This is why some states can have a sudden cold snap or colder than normal winter, even during the long-term trend of global warming. Causes of global warming Sea-level rise has been happening even faster than scientists anticipated a few years ago. If recent projections are accurate, 2-3°F warming could bring about 3 feet of global sea-level rise by 2100, displacing approximately 56 million people in 84 developing countries around the world. Effects of global Warming Climate change presentation Greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere in many ways, including through the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal and petroleum) and by deforestation. As some environments warm (e.g. the Arctic tundra) they also release carbon that may have been stored for thousands of years. Quite simply, it hasn't. Even global surface temperatures (which is how Spencer is likely measuring 'global warming', although they only account for about 2% of the Earth's warming), have warmed about 0.2°C over the past 15 years, according to the best available measurements. Evidence of global warming Causes of global warming
Transcript: photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Climate Change: China has the largest absolute emissions in the world, contributing ~7 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide per year. In absolute terms we see that... ...But the EU-27, with emissions greater than India and Russia combined, constitute the world's third largest emitter, with 4 gigatonnes every year. The second largest emitter is the US, with 5.5 gigatonnes of CO2 emitted per year. So too does Russia, with comparable emissions... A little context on global contributions to climate change... India also makes significant contributions, amounting to just under two gigatonnes of CO2 per year. Any action in the developed world is futile in the face of Asian economic development: a case against.
Transcript: Causes Effects It keeps the Earth's temperature at a comfortable level There is now more precipitationin the arctic because of climate change Member Greenhouse Effect Advantage Tempertures have rose up by about 2 degrees some regions of the acrtic The greenhouse effect is given this name because the effect is similar like in a greenhouse; the heat from the sun is trapped inside by the glass the greenhouse gases have the same property as the glass, infrared radiation cannot pass through them Rising sea levels also shows that there has been change in the Earth's climate Nancy Duong, Sammy Schwab, Ammi Jani Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect Disadvantages The greenhouse effect is what keeps the heat trapped inside Earth to support life on Earth Without the greenhouse effect, the temperature would drop from 14°C to –18°C Climate Change man-made greenhouse gases; the burning of fossil fuels, can increase the concentration and Earth's temperature If the temperature increases, natural disasters can occur and also the temperature can become unlivable Glaciers are very sensitive to climate change, they can shrink and grow at very fast paces. The Arctic has the most evidence that climate has under gone a significant change (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Transcript: Engaging Citizens in reducing the carbon footprint of BC communities Long Term Thinking Broad in scope co-ordinated across community collaborative networks through community a "living" plan target and track results Results of competitions support community goals and and - calculators + validation process PERSONAL efforts by citizens elders citizen accounts - personal inputs to system club accounts - club inputs challenge accounts - terms of challenges Pacific Institute For Climate Solutions Cap and Trade Revenue Competition as motivator make it fun Use existing facilitators who know community accurate metrics User-friendly! FUN Bottom-up Community Development Expanded - online challenge admin system -- sets goals -- creates metrics -- provides facilitation Engage & support existing community networks Expertise "Smart Planning for Communities" many data sets disaggregated by community - priorities, citizen dialogue + voting Existing Networks Government: Our system supports Interactive monitoring of results relevant narratives from users to share ideas organized by concepts & 'hood build in useful apps & calculators & display results to communities "Social Mobilization Workshop Report" not PERFECTION experts Apartment building residents high school teams soccer moms company employees Contests neighbourhoods Motivate common Community * data visualized & interactive * interactive maps * data with narratives Brainstorming: Project Design - node view supports social infrastructure provides resources We'd love to develop a detailed proposal for the Climate Action Secretariat software designed for community engagement Competition among similar entities: employees of Bank "A" challenge those of Bank "B" would contribute to improve Goal publicity, success stories competition stories provide special access to data & stories insures inclusivity for all prizes, recognition initially "priming the pump" are our team has the facilitate networking Community "A" challenges others tracking tool keeps track of entity in multiple competitions validation process authenticates individual efforts semantic framework We have the right stuff! activities credible metrics more calculators wider tracking public to add ideas Inspire Grass Roots solutions Citizen engagement Individual efforts may be small but... citzens of their communities united interest creation of coefficients is a key task Climate Change Data Catalogue - citizens stories about experiences inspired new solutions engage everyone Narratives results reports and analysis Community Facilitation Inspired diverse Green commuter challenge i.e. Parks & Rec staff... pay an honorarium many new everyday tasks Get support of local media social mobilization can add up! Local Media to report on successes prize is recognition focus all on a Fraser Basin Council aggregate individuals' efforts Method: such benefit will cap Trade learn If proposed methods can be proven Community Facilitators support of community media in context of community goals Participants Facilitators develop "entity competitions" Competitions
Transcript: While the Earth's Temperature rises naturally, humans are helping it, and making it worse. We have added a lot of green house gasses to our atmosphere, helping the temperature of the earth rise. Conclusion One major affect of global climate change, is the melting of the glaciers. The melting of these glaciers will affect the lives of animals, and also cause a rise in ocean water, creating floods. This will ruin many peoples homes, and lives. The melting of the glaciers become more noticeable as time passed. The earth started getting warmer, melting the glaciers. 1. The rising temperatures of the earth will have a direct affect on me. 2. The rising temperatures make the El Nino and la Nina years worse. An El Nino year is when parts of the ocean are hotter than normal, an El Nino year is when parts of the ocean are colder. 3. Climate change makes these years worse, affecting the weather and climate of where I live. 1. Studies have shown that the glaciers have been melting since 1850. 2. Currently, all glaciers are showing less mass than they have been before, and are melting. Data There is another aspect of climate change, though it wont directly affect me, I'm still concerned about Data Background Information Climate Change presentation By Courtney Douglas Climate Change Will Have a Direct Impact on My Life 1. The glacier cover on Mount Kilimanjaro has retreated 75%. 2. The volume of the glacier is now 80% less than it was a century ago. Conclusion Global climate change is a real issue, caused by real people, that needs real attention. If we continue to ignore the dangerous side affects of the global climate change, things could be very dangerous for humans, plants, animals, and the earth itself. People must be made aware, so that things can change, and life can become healthier. 1. Rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere is dangerous for everything and everyone. 2. Rising CO2 are causing many health issues for people and even loss of life, for some. 3. Rising CO2 levels are causing our atmosphere to deplete. 4. Rising CO2 levels are causing harm to plants and animals. Background Information The glaciers are melting because of global climate change. The earth is warming because of our actions, and the glaciers melting is a consequence. There is documented proof of their melting since 1850. The melting of these glaciers will cause a loss of life, homes, fresh water that is available, and mountain climbing/viewing.. Date The earth is 5x warmer now, than it was a century ago. It is estimated that in 2036, earth will reach her boiling point... The earth's temperature has lowered 1.4 degrees since 1850. Date
Transcript: Deforestation and the destruction of rainforests have a huge affect on climate change. Trees absorb CO2 from the air as they grow. Using energy from the sun, they turn the carbon captured from the CO2 molecules into building blocks for their trunks, branches and foliage. This is all part of the carbon cycle. A mature forest doesn't necessarily absorb much more CO2 that it releases, however, because when each tree dies it either rots down or is burned, much of its stored carbon is released once again. In other words, Human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in the Earth's atmosphere in the amount of greenhouse gases, small particles and cloudiness. Greenhouse gases and aerosols (small particles) affect climate change by changing incoming solar radiation and out going infrared radiation that are part of Earth’s energy balance. Changing the properties of these gases and particles can lead to a warming or cooling of the climate system. Human Causes How do humans affect climate change? When humans burn gasoline, coal, natural gas, and other common fuels to make electricity or drive cars, they release a large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. For every gallon (or liter) of gasoline your car burns, 1300 times that volume of CO2 is released (a gallon of gas weighs about 6 pounds or 2.8 kilograms, but the released CO2 would weigh over 19 pounds or 8.75 kilograms). Climate Change talking about climate change, the most important thing about CO2 levels. - Pollution created by human activities - Carbon dioxide and other pollutants Other ways humans impact climate change Climate change has already had noticeable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes are breaking up earlier than suppose to, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner. Effects that scientists had predicted in the past would result from climate change are now occurring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves. Decreased water resources in many semi-arid areas, including western U.S. and Mediterranean basin, increased frequency of hot extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation, precipitation increases in high latitudes and precipitation decreases in subtropical land regions all have a high certainty on occurring in the future due to scientists predicaments. By: Nikolas and Rebecca Greenhouses: References: result from the burning of coal to All of the next three slides/ photos shown on your left focus on the adverse effects of climate change that have already happened or have a high risk of happening in the future. What can we do to help? produce electricity. As individuals we could help fix climate change by recycling, driving less, car pooling, using less water than what's needed for you and using less energy. As a society we could organize a protest on parliament where a group of people go and give their opinion on climate change and what we could do to help. forests is not that they reduce the amount of CO2 in the air but that they are huge reservoirs of stored carbon. If such a forest is burned or cleared then much of that carbon is released back into the atmosphere, adding to atmospheric Human Activities: Since the start of the industrial era (about 1750), the overall effect of human activities on climate change has been a warming influence. The human impact on climate during this era exceeds largely that due to known changes in natural action, such as solar changes and volcanic eruptions. Adverse Effects on Climate Change - Electricity generated at power plants is carried by power lines to users, sometimes hundreds of miles away. becoming worse. Conclusion Cars affecting climate change: Forest and Forestry: In conclusion, humans have a high impact on climate change and how our environment is till this day. Also, the harmful affects on climate change for the future are very high on our climate Continuation from last slide: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml#.Ut2eXHn0B1M http://ncse.com/climate/climate-change-101/how-much-human-responsibility-for-climate-change http://climate.nasa.gov/effects https://docs.google.com/a/ocsb.ca/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxtYXRobWFuaGVyYnl8Z3g6MjE3YTRkNTgxOGI2MWQ0OQ
Transcript: BORING TITLE FOR AN EXCITING TALK ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE WHO KNOWS WHAT CLIMATE CHANGE IS? IT IS... The Goldilocks Effect Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. Just how warm...? 3-5° F by 2050 Just how high? 7-12 inches by 2050 Populus sp. All images courtesy of Estelle Levetin except Fagus sp. (ssb.plymouth.ac.uk) Ambrosia sp. Venus 863° Betula sp. Ulmus sp. Mars -82° Acer sp. BRIAN KAHN JULIE ARRIGHI CYNTHIA THOMSON Fraxinus sp. Fagus sp. Platanus sp. Quercus sp. Carya sp. Poaceae Earth 58° http://j.mp/MarchHeatwave
Transcript: As described in Greg Craven's book... Always take any information obtained into a spectrum of credibility. This type of problem solving should also be enacted while looking into solutions. Conclusion Questions? Presentation By: Economic Outlook Okay? So your saying we have some disparities and problems facing us, but what's the worst that could happen? Europe made same mistake ,Obama's bill is headed down the same road. It’s obviously happening Act now Save time/resources/money later Invest in reasonable, efficient solutions People respond to incentives-the taxes impose a higher price on the consumer giving incentive to use smaller quantity. Understanding our Carbon Footprint Just as with the tax, cap and trade makes firms pay for the pollution it emits. Tiffani Spealman Eric Giddings Ashley Agler Economist prefer the tax Taxation and Government Looking at opportunity cost It the long run creates incentives to produce technology that is more environmental friendly. photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Firms that own permits pay for them too because they give up the opportunity cost of the money they could receive from selling the permit. Impacts and Solutions: Cap and Trade Right now people want to be cool,and people choose cars to match personalities. Reducing Personal Footprint The more you do the more you save Personal Feeling of Accomplishment Pro-active VS Re-active Image: www.cardotcom.com High enough tax could cause companies to go above and beyond to avoid taxes possibly eliminating pollution all together Homes Consumer Goods Food Care of Personal Goods Economics is all about choices. Opportunity cost of choices The corrective tax known as "Pigovian tax" image: huffingtonpost.com Cutting Personal Cost The gases include: Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Tax Credits for Change The total set of greenhouse gases emmited by a person, organization, or event. Stop Wasting Time Preferred over regulation because can regulate pollution at a lower cost to society. Imagine a world were firms are taxed on the number of tons of pollution emitted Options for Voluntary Change Auctioning off permits puts the them in hands of firms that value it the most. Efficient outcome everything good. Introductions to Issues Only problem is we can't give to many away or these permits will become less expensive then it wont solve anything Research Not on what is going to happen, on what we can do. Ego causes people to buy Hummers and Ford F350's and sports cars that get horrible gas mileage. The Climate Crisis By Archer & Rahmstorf Societal makeover changing the way we view cars. Not as a flashing representation of ego but a form of transportation that gets you from point A to point B. The United States of America & Climate Change My Idea My Idea Facts of Warming in the US 2.5 Billion Tons of CO2 come from Coal Burning Energy Plants 1.5 Billion Tons of CO2 is released by Automobiles Growing Seasons are continually shifting more north 4% of the Earth's Population creates 25% of CO2 emissions image: ewashtenaw.org -50mpg just example ,but imagine if the factories were not only taxed for the pollution they emit during production but also for producing cars that get low mpg as well. -Right now hybrids are expensive that's why not a lot of people have them. -The larger the supply of hybrids the lower the cost will be . Making the Most of Credits Voluntary and Personal Rewards Better for Atmosphere High investment cost that pays out over time Tax credits Personal Savings Sited Information Includes: Making the Right Economic Choices The tax will affect the factories cost of production causing them to produce less raising prices on the good it produces. Geothermal Systems Installation cost offest Using Earth's natural heat Right now people are too caught up in their private orbit to even realize the real issues we face. image: energystar.gov After all if factories didn't produce low mpg cars in the first place nobody would have the option to buy them. Examine what we are giving up to do something else. Is it worth it? Financially Morally Effective Voluntary program for homeowners Adding Value to Home Lowers overall Carbon Footprint Society needs to think of the environment and not about being cool and driving the biggest of fastest car on the road. image: energystar.gov Government and You The tax Choices Energystar.gov Imagine a world were firms are taxed on the number of tons of pollution emitted Regulation only dictates pollution. Rain Gardens Beautification Small Investment Run Off Prevention Ann Arbor, MI Reward factories for producing fuel efficient cars plain and simple. Maybe people will think hybrids are cool when they are the cheapest car on the market. Subsidies-Reward factories for producing cars by giving pollution taxes breaks to factories who pollute to produce hybrid cars. Personal Wind Turbines Installation cost offset Producing up to 100 KW Cap And Trade What's the Worst that could Happen?
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