Transcript: Schedule It Future... Example UCS \ VMware What have we got? Where are we using it? How fast are we using it? Do we need more? When will we need it? How much will it cost? Whats Capacity Management? Data Manipulation “The prime objective is to produce a plan that documents the current levels of resource utilisation and service performance, and after consideration of the business strategy and plans, forecasts the future requirements for resource to support IT services that underpin business activities. The plan should indicate clearly any assumptions made. It should also include any recommendations quantified in terms of resource required, cost, benefits, impact etc.” PowerCli What's available? What's useful? How often should we report? What presentation types? Who is the audience? What happens when the goalposts change? Beginnings Export Scripts: 30+ PoSH Export -> CSV Format Data Files Import Scripts: 30+ PoSH Import -> Microsoft Access / SQL Database: 30+ Tables / 40+ Queries Spreadsheets: 20+ DB Linked MSQuery / Charts / Trends Capacity Report: Overview & Management Summary Core Application Analysis Microsoft SQL Microsoft Lync Microsoft Exchange PARIS Virtual Desktop Infrastructure Quite A Bit... Presentation PowerTool Automate Everything So What Have You Actually Done? Database Import PowerShell ITIL Defines 4 Sub-Processes Business Capacity Management Service Capacity Management Component Capacity Management Capacity Management Reporting VDI Licencing Storage Network Applications Dashboard Trends Refinement PowerShell Example UCS \ VMware \ VDI Core Infrastructure Analysis Datacentre Resources Compute Resources Storage Resources Network Resources Whats Capacity Management? Extraction Make It Repeatable Example Datacenter What's In Scope? Capacity Management Translates To Extract Present Manipulate Import
Transcript: Capacity Planning -refers to an upper limit or ceiling on the load that an operating unit can handle. The load might be in terms of the number of physical units produced or the number of services performed Efficiency = actual input effective capacity Design capacity - maximum output rate or service capacity an operation, process, or facility is designed for. 8. Because capacity decisions often involve substantial financial and other resources, it is necessary to plan for them far in advance. 1. IMPACT ON THE ABILITY OF THE ORGANIZATION TO MEET FUTURE DEMANDS . Capacity essentially limits the rate of output possible. Having capacity to satisfy demand can often allow a company to take advantage of tremendous benefits. Measuring the capacity also shows its efficiency and utilization. Capacity utilization is the ratio of actual output to design capacity. 4. INVOLVE MENT ON THE LONG-TERM COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES . The fact that, once they are implemented, those decisions may be difficult or impossible to modify without incurring major costs. DEFINING AND MEASURING CAPACITY Reasons why capacity decisions are among the most fundamental of all the design decisions High capacity utilization means a high amount of effective capacity that can be achieved by correcting quality problems, maintaining equipment in good operating condition, fully training employees, and fully utilizing bottleneck equipment. There are benefits of having high utilization only in instance where there is demand for the output. When demand is not there, focusing exclusively on utilization can be counterproductive, because the excess output not only results in additional variable costs but also generates the costs of having to carry the output as inventory. CAPACITY DECISIONS ARE STRATEGIC 2. CAPACITY DECISIONS AFFECT OPERATING COSTS. Ideally, capacity and demand requirements will be matched, which will tend to minimize operating costs. Capacity Actual output - rate of output actually achieved--cannot exceed effective capacity. 7. GLOBALIZATION HAS INCREASED THE IMPORTANCE AND THE COMPLEXITY OF CAPACITY DECISIONS. Far-flung supply chains and distant markets add to the uncertainty about capacity needs 6. CAPACITY AFFECTS THE EASE OF MANAGEMENT - having appropriate capacity makes management easier than when capacity is mismatched. Capacity often refers to an upper limit on the rate of output. Even though this seems simple enough, there are subtle difficulties in actually measuring capacity in certain cases. These difficulties arise because of different interpretations of the term capacity and problems with identifying suitable measures for a specific situation. In selecting a measure of capacity, it is important to choose one that does not require updating. Utilization = actual input design capacity Efficiency is the ratio of actual output to effective capacity. 5. CAPACITY DECISIONS CAN AFFECT COMPETITIVENESS. - If a firm has excess capacity, or can quickly add capacity, that fact may serve as a barrier to entry by other firms. Then too, capacity can affect delivery speed, which can be a competitive advantage. Formula 3.CAPACITY IS USUALLY A MAJOR DETERMINANT OF INITIAL COST. Typically, the greater the capacity of a productive unit, the greater its cost. Effective capacity - Design capacity minus allowances such as personal time, maintenance, and scrap.
Transcript: Requirements TeamQuest Analyzer® shows 24 hours of CPU utilization on an IBM F50 PowerPC system. The chart is useful, but it provides a bird’s eye view of performance, at best. Process of capacity planning Forecast Measurement Capacity Planning Measure 1. Measure and record the server’s primary function. ( Apache hits, database queries) 2. Measure and record the server’s fundamental hardware resources. ( CPU, memory, disk, network usage) 3. Determine how the server’s primary function relates to its hardware resources. (X database queries result in Y percent CPU usage) 4. Find the maximum acceptable resource usage (or ceiling) based on both the server’s primary function and hardware resources The display shows the response time and throughput of the seven workloads that were active Predictions • Performance — External service monitoring — Business requirements — User expectations • Capacity — System metrics — Resource ceilings
Transcript: Capacity- the upper limit or ceiling on the load that an operating unit can handle. -key strategic component in designing the system. -encompasses many basic decisions with long-term consequences for the organization. Conclusion Capacity Planning Goal of Strategic Capacity Planning -To achieve a match between the long-term supply capabilities of an organization and the predicted level of long-term demand.
Transcript: Supply chain factors must be taken into account in capacity planning if substantial capacity changes are involved. Key questions include: 1. What impact will the changes have on suppliers, warehousing, transportation, and distributors? 2. If capacity will be increased, will these elements of the supply chain be able to handle the increase? 3. if capacity is to be decreased, what impact will the loss of business have on these elements of the supply chain? An organization typically bases its capacity strategy on assumptions and predictions aboutlong-term demand patterns, technological changes, and the behavior of its competitors. These typically involve; The growth rate and variability of demand, The costs of building and operating facilities of various sizes, The rate and direction of technological innovation, The likely behavior of competitors, and Availability of capital and other inputs. Capacity cushion - an amount of capacity in excess of expected demand when there is some uncertainty about demand. Typically, the greater the degree of demand uncertainty, the greater the amount of cushion used. Organizations that have standard products or services generally have smaller capacity cushions 1. Estimate future capacity requirements. 2. Evaluate existing capacity and facilities and identify gaps. 3. Identify alternatives for meeting requirements. 4. Conduct financial analyses of each alternative. 5. Assess key qualitative issues for each alternative. 6. Select the alternative to pursue that will be best in the long term. 7. Implement the selected alternative. 8. Monitor results. 1. Leading capacity strategy - builds capacity in anticipation of future demand increases. If capacity increases involve a long lead time, this strategy may be the best option. 2. strategy - builds capacity when demand exceeds current capacity. 3. Tracking strategy - . A tracking strategy is similar to a following strategy, but it adds capacity in relatively small increments to keep pace with increasing demand. Scheduling Materials management Quality assurance Maintenance policies Equipment breakdowns Facilities The particular mix of products or services rendered also must be considered since different items will have different rates of output Operational Factors External Factors determinants of effective capacity Steps in the Capacity Planning Process Layout of the work area capacity planning Location STRATEGY FORMULATION Quantity Capabilities Management policy can affect capacity by allowing or not allowing capacity options such as overtime or second or third shifts. The three primary strategies Quality Capabilities Product standards Safety regulations Unions Pollution control standards Design The more uniform the output, the more opportunities there are for standardization of methods and materials, which leads to greater capacity. The tasks that make up a job, the variety of activities involved, and the training, skill, and experience required to perform a job all have an impact on the potential and actual output. Environmental factors Product and Service Factors Process Factors Human Factor Policy Factors Product and Service Factors Supply Chain Factors
Transcript: CAPACITY PLANNING Capacity Planning WHAT IS CAPACITY PLANNING Capacity is defined as the ability to achieve, store or produce. For an organization, capacity would be the ability of a given system to produce output within the specific time period. In operations, management capacity is referred as an amount of the input resources available to produce relative output over period of time. Goal of Capacity Planning The ultimate goal of capacity planning is to meet the current and future level of the requirement at a minimal wastage. The three types of capacity planning based on goal are lead capacity planning, lag strategy planning and match strategy planning. Factors Affecting Capacity Planning * production facility (layout, design, and location) *product line or matrix *production technology *human capital (job design, compensation) *operational structure (scheduling, quality assurance) *external structure ( policy, safety regulations) Strategic Capacity Planning STRATEGIC CAPACITY PLANNING A technique used to identify and measure overall capacity of production is referred to as strategic capacity planning. Strategic capacity planning is utilized for capital intensive resource like plant, machinery, labor, etc. Capacity planning based on the timeline is classified into three main categories long range, medium range and short range. Capacity Planning Classification Capacity Planning Classification Long range capacity of an organization is dependent on various other capacities like design capacity, production capacity, sustainable capacity and effective capacity. Design capacity is the maximum output possible as indicated by equipment manufacturer under ideal working condition Long Term Capacity Long Term Capacity The strategic capacity planning undertaken by organization for 2 to 3 years of a time frame is referred to as medium term capacity planning. Medium Term Capacity Medium Term Capacity The strategic planning undertaken by organization for a daily weekly or quarterly time frame is referred to as short term capacity planning. Short Term Capacity Short Term Capacity Three Basic Strategies Three Basic Strategies Capacity is expanded in anticipation of demand growth. This aggressive strategy is used to lure customers from competitors who are capacity constrained or to gain a foothold in a rapidly expanding market. It also allows companies to respond to unexpected surges in demand and to provide superior levels of service during peak demand periods. Capacity lead strategy Capacity lead strategy Capacity is expanded to coincide with average expected demand. This is a moderate strategy in which managers are certain they will be able to sell at least some portion of expanded output, and endure some periods of unmet demand. Approximately half of the time capacity leads demand, and half of the time capacity lags demand. Average capacity strategy Average capacity strategy Capacity is increased after an increase in demand has been documented. This conservative strategy produces a higher return on investment but may lose customers in the process. It is used in industries with standard products and cost-based or weak competition. The strategy assumes that lost customers will return from competitors after capacity has expanded. Capacity lag strategy Capacity lag strategy As demand grows, a lead, lag, or average capacity strategy can be applied. As demand grows, a lead, lag, or average capacity strategy can be applied. Click to edit text Capacity Expansion Strategies Consider higher education's strategy in preparing for a tripling of the state's college-bound population in the next decade. An established university, guaranteed applicants even lean years, may follow a capacity lag strategy. A young university might lead capacity expansion in hopes of capturing students not admitted to the more established universities. A community college may choose the average capacity strategy to fulfill its mission of educating the state's youth but with little risk. How much to increase capacity depends on : Capacity can be increased incrementally or in large steps. (1) the volume and certainty of anticipated demand (2) strategic objectives in terms of growth (3) the costs of expansion and operation. Best Operating Level for a Hotel • Fixed costs can be spread over a larger number of units, • Production or operating costs do not increase linearly with output levels, • Quantity discounts are available for material purchases, and • Operating efficiency increases as workers gain experience. Capacity Planning Decision Capacity Planning Decision Three Steps of Capacity Planning Three Steps of Capacity Planning Determine Service Level Requirements Analyze Current Capacity Planning for future What are the models and techniques that are useful for capacity planning? Models and Techniques Used for Capacity Planning
Transcript: Capacity Planning Thank You! Capacity Planning Definition The production capacity needed by an organization to meet changing demands for its products, services and business. Capacity is the maximum output rate of a production or service facility. Capacity also includes. Equipment Space Employee Skills. Basic Question Basic question about capacity planning? Forecasting How much is needed ? When is it needed? What kind of capacity is needed? Reasons of Capacity Planning Reasons Changes in demand. Changes in technology. Environmental changes. Future threats. Opportunity Process
Transcript: Capacity Definition Capacity Planning The main of capacity The number of connections between the BTS and MS depends on the number of frequencies and how often these frequencies can be reused in a certain area and between base stations Aim of capacity planning 1-to define the maximum and required number of transceivers at each base station 2- definethe maximum and required capacity of the base station or base station site at each physical location over a certain area. The maximum number of frequencies in the GSM900 (GSM at 900 MHz band) system is 125 in the uplink (MS-BST)and (BST-MS) downlink directions . Each frequency is also called a channel and thus there are a maximum of 125 channels available for both directions. Each of these channels can be reused at some distance from the base station.This group of base stations forms a cluster structure as depicted in Figure If the maximum configuration was applied and all 125 frequencies were available, 125/12 = 10.4 frequencies on average at each cell could be used the total capacity of the whole network depends on the number of cells The maximum average number of BTS–MS connections at each cell can then be calculated by the multiplication by 8 (time slots) is based on the GSM being a time division multiple access (TDMA) these time slots is called a traffic channel because a full data or voice call can be performed on any of these channels. Thanks The main target in radio network infrastructure planning is to minimize the number of base station sites in order to minimize their construction, operational and maintenance costs. Twelve different frequencies have to be used in order to avoid interference The number of connections (otherwise calls) between the base station and mobile stations is an essential parameter when the mobile network configuration is designed.
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