Transcript: Superior Vena Cava Brings deoxygenated blood to top half of the heart Inferior Vena Cava brings blood to the bottom half of the heart Right Atrium right upper chamber of the heart Tricuspid Valve between right atrium and right ventricle Right Ventricle lower right region of the heart Pulmonary Semilunar Valve where the blood leaves the heart Pulmonary Artery takes blood away from right ventricle to the lungs for oxygen Pulmonary Vein pulls oxygenated blood from the lungs Left Atrium left upper chamber of the heart Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve between left atrium and left ventricle Left Ventricle lower left chamber of the heart Aortic Semilunar Valve located where blood leaves the heart Aorta takes blood away from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Artery Arteriole Capillary Venual Vein Blood Flow
Transcript: Things that affect Blood Flow blood pressure Blood pressure: The pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is produced primarily by the contraction of the heart muscle. It's measurement is recorded by two numbers. ~ The first (systolic pressure) is measured after the heart contracts and is highest. ~The second (diastolic pressure) is measured before the heart contracts and lowest. A blood pressure cuff is used to measure the pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is called "hypertension". Blood volume: a measurement of the volume, or inhabited three-dimensional space, of blood that exists in a given person ~Blood volume includes both red blood cells and plasma; it is not limited to one particular part of blood. ~Maintaining a normal volume of blood is very important as blood carries oxygen and essential nutrients throughout the body. If one loses too much blood because of a bleeding wound or because of inadequate blood cell synthesis, dangerously low blood pressure can result. When one's blood pressure is too low, vital organs may receive inadequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients. Vascular resistance: a term used to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. ~The resistance offered by the peripheral circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance (SVR), while the resistance offered by the vasculature of the lungs is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). ~The systemic vascular resistance may also be referred to as the total peripheral resistance. Vasoconstriction (i.e., decrease in blood vessel diameter) increases SVR, whereas vasodilation (increase in diameter) decreases SVR. Disease Exercise The End. Finally. Vascular resistance Effect on Circulatory System: The circulatory system responds to an increased need for blood by adjusting the width of the blood vessels, primarily the arterioles and venules. Disease overall affects blood flow by decreasing it. Diet and exercise will increase blood pressure.
Transcript: CIRCULATORY SYSTEM STROKE VOLUME BIBLIOGRAPHY BLOOD FLOW CARDIAC OUTPUT Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. The stroke volume is not all the blood contained in the left ventricle, normally only about two thirds of the blood in the ventricle is pushed out with each beat. Together with the heart rate and the stroke volume determines the output of blood by the heart per minute wich is the cardiac output. Scientist's have done a survey showing that when doing sport the stoke volume increases. People who are fit and well trained will pump up to 200ml of blood per beat whilst doing excersise, compared to an untrained person who has 120ml per minute. The heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually thats measured in a minute. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles. The heart rate may be too fast or too slow. The pulse is a bulge of an artery from waves of blood that goes through the blood vessels each time the heart beats. The pulse is often taken at the wrist to estimate the heart rate. There is also something that is called a maximum heart rate that is usually judged by the age of the percipient and the number of beats per minute of the heart when working at its maximum that is usually estimated as 220 minus one's age. When doing exercise you use more oxygen, the heart rate rises curculating more oxygenated blood throughout the body, this casues to heart to pump more The a-vO2 diference is the oxygen content of the aterial blood (oxygenated blood) and mixed vensous blood (non-oxygenated blood). It may be shown as ml of oxygen per 100ml of blood. The value represents the extent of which the oxygen is removed from the blood as it passes through the body. Therefor not all the oxygen in the blood is used and the veins still contain somewhat of a percentage of oxygen pending on the persons fitness. People with a better fitness level will use more oxygen causing their a-vO2 difference to be higher. Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute. Cardiac output is the functons of heart rate and stroke volume. the heart rate is simply the number of heart beats per minute. The Cardiac Outpur is the Stroke volume times the Heart rate, the average male resting output is 5.25 litres and a females is 4.9 litres. During excersie the Cardiac Output increases which increases the amount of blood pumped throught the heart. http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095426571 http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/how-it-works/Pages/Heart-facts.aspx http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cardiac-output-topic-overview Blood flow is the act of the repetitive pumping action of the heart that forces oxygenated and deoxygenated blood throughout the body using veins and arteries. We will discuss topics that involve blood flow, blood pressure, cardiac output and a-V02 difference. A-VO2 DIFFERENCE HEART RATE (HR)
Transcript: Right Heart The heart is a double pump divided into two sections: Right Heart- sends deoxygenated blood to lungs for oxygenated blood Left Heart- circulates oxygenated blood throughout the body Purpose: To bring in oxygenated blood from the lungs and circulate it throughout the body Process: Oxygenated blood flows from lungs via pulmonary veins Blood flows to left atrium Blood flows to mitral valve Blood flows to left ventricle Blood flows to aortic semilunar valve Bloos flows to Aorta Blood is circulated throughout the body to deliver oxygen <http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/blood-cells.jpg> <http://www.wisdomportal.com/Numbers-4HeartChambers(588x510).jpg> <http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/heart-blood-vessels/how-does-blood-flow-through-heart.aspx> Blood Flow By: Rohil Bhattarai Double Pump Purpose: Bring in deoxygenated blood and send it to lungs Process: Deoxygenated blood flows into heart from vena cava Then blood flows to the right atrium After that blood flows to the triscupid valve Then blood flows to the right ventricle Then blood flows to the pulmonary semilunar valve Then blood flows to the pulmonary artery After that blood flows to the Lungs for Oxygen General Circulation General Circulation is when the blood goes from the heart to the rest of the body Process: Heart to Arteries to Arteriols to Capillaries to Venules to Veins to Heart Works Cited Left Heart
Transcript: Tumor Growth Cylinder Tube Equilibrium of Gompertz Model To find the solution we integrate The tumor will grow constantly The tumor is at it maximum size supportable with the available nutrient supply Laminar Flow Equation The Growth of a tumor stops at equilibrium Since N>0, it occurs when b-aln(Ne)=0 lnNe=b/a For the mouse tumor: Ne=e^0.4126/).0439= e^9.399= 12,072 The Gompertz Model is a sigmoid function for a series of time where growth is slowest at the start and end of a time period. The equation for this is G(N)=N(b-aln(N)) Where N= Number of cells and a&b are constants matched to the data. Maximum Growth The shape of a artery or vein is a cylinder. We can use this to determine the blood flow at a given point in time. We use the equation of law of laminar flow to solve this. Gompertz Model Blood Fl w and Tumor Growth Things to Consider The picture below is used to find the rate of blood flow with smaller equally spaced radii. The area is: The equation we use is: v= p/4nl(R^2-r^2) v (velocity) is greatest along the central axis and decreases when r (radius) increases. n=Viscosity p=Pressure l=Length Flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and low momentum convection. When a fluid is flowing through a closed channel such as a vein or between two flat plates, either of two types of flow may occur depending on the velocity and viscosity of the fluid: Laminar flow or turbulent flow. TO FIND THE RATE OF BLOOD FLOW Simpson-Herren and Lloyd studies C3H Mouse Mammary Tumors The best fit for this is G(N)=N(0.4126-0.0439ln(N)) Abigail Foster How to use Calculus to determine Blood Flow The final equation for this would be F= PR^4/8nl Blood Flow Through a Vessel The figure out maximum growth we have to apply the product rule. The equation would look like this dG/dN=N(-a/N)+(b-aln(N)) dG/dN=(b-a)-aln(N) Maximum occurs when G'(N)=0 or aln(Nmax)=b-a and Nmax=e^(b/a)-1 Mouse Tumor: Nmax=e^9.339-1)=4,441x10^6
Transcript: Tricuspid Valve The Right Ventricle and Left Atrium are associated with the pulmonary circuit. Inferior Vena Cava Superior Vena Cava The Aorta is the largest artery in the human body. It's as thick as a garden hose and takes OXYGENATED blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Right Ventricle The Superior Vena Cava allows DEOXYGENATED blood from the upper body to enter the right atrium of the heart. Left Atrium Why does the heart become slightly smaller when you're older? The tissues and muscles in our bodies slowly recede over time, thus our hearts are slightly smaller when we are old. Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium and is mainly caused by infection. What thickens as we age? The Aortic Valve separates the Left Ventricle from the Aorta. It allows OXYGENATED blood to be pushed into the aorta without allowing backflow into the heart. What role do the chordae tendinae and papillary muscles have in the normal function of the AV Valves? What prevents the AV Valves from swinging into the atria? What is pericarditis? What would happen if the heart valves stiffened? Connects the Left atrium to the Left Ventricle. Allows OXYGENATED blood to pass through and prevents the blood from flowing back into the atrium. The Left Ventricle is more muscular because it needs more power to push the blood up into the aorta and out of the body. What would happen if a coronary artery became blocked? The Inferior Vena Cava is like the Superior V.C. but it allows DEOXYGENATED blood from the lower body (rather than the upper) to enter the right atrium of the heart. Connects the Right atrium to the Right Ventricle. Allows DEOXYGENATED blood to pass through and prevents the blood from flowing back into the atrium. The lower right chamber of the heart that receives DEOXYGENATED blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the lungs through the pulmonary artery The Chordae Tendinae prevent the Valves from opening backwards and the Papillary Muscles allow the Valves to open. The Right Atrium and Left Ventricle are associated with the systemic circuit. Right Atrium The semilunar valves prevent backflow from the trunks into the ventricles. The Lungs add OXYGEN to the blood Systemic System Aorta Bicuspid Valve What valves prevent backflow of blood from ventricles to atria? The part of the Circulatory System that focuses on the transport of oxygen The valves in our hearts thicken as we age. True, although the Left Ventricle pumps bllod out with a stronger force. Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Are heart murmurs detected mor or less frequently in the elderly? What are the 2 chambers associated with the pulmonary circuit? The Atrioventricular Valves (Bicuspid and Tricuspid) prevent backflow into the atria. Why is the Left Ventricle more muscular than the right? The Left Atrium receives OXYGENATED blood from the Pulmonary Veins and sends it to the Left Ventricle through the Bicuspid valve Pulmonary Arteries carry DEOXYGENATED blood from the heart to the lungs Pulmonary Veins carry OXYGENATED blood from the lungs to the heart. What are the 2 chamber associated with the systemic circuit? The Right Atrium receives DEOXYGENATED blood from the Vena Cava and sends it to the Right Ventricle through the Tricuspid valve Aortic Valve What are the causes of mitral valve prolapse? The lower left chamber of the heart that receives OXYGENATED blood from the Left atrium and pumps it to the rest of the body through the Aortic Valve and the Aorta. Left Ventricle A type of heart valve disease called Valvular Stenosis could occur and could lead to heart failure. Pulmonary Arteries What valves prevent backflow from aortic/pulmonary trunks into ventricles? True or False? The Left and Right Ventricles pump equal amounts of blood. A heart attack would happen. Heart murmurs are detected less frequently in the elderly. Blood Flow Lungs A semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It prevents DEOXYGENATED blood from flowing from the artery back into the heart Abnormal Cartilage and Displacement of the Mitral Valve are some of the known causes of Mitral Valve Prolapse. Pulmonary Veins The Chordae Tendinae keeps the AV valves from swinging backwards into the atria
Transcript: The two chambers that are associated with the pulmonary circuit are the right atrium and the right ventricle. 16.Explain what would happen if a branch of a coronary artery were to become blocked. The blockage of a oronary artery would lead to a restriction of blood flow to the demands of the active cardiac muscle. Oxygen: Turns deoxygenated blood into oxygenated blood so it can be used where it is needed throughout the body. Pulmonary veins: Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs torwards the heart. Left atrium: Collects blood from the pulmonary circuit. Bicspid/Mitral Valve: The papillary muscles contract which tenses the chordae tendineae, resulting in limited movement of the cusps, and preventing backflow. Left Ventricle: Ejects blood into the systemic circuit. Aortic Semilunar Valve: Gaurds the entrance to the aorta once the left ventricle is filled, then it opens to allow blood to flow to the aorta. Aorta: Pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Systemic System: Transports blood to and from the rest of the body. (Starting and ending at the heart). 13. What valves prevent backflow from aortic/pulmonary trunks into ventricles. The aortic semilunar valves valves prevent backflow from aortic/pulmonary trunks into ventricles. Into the left ventricle. 2. What prevents the AV valves from swinging into the atria? Where the blood then flows through the (mitral) bicuspid valve. The two chambers associated with the systemic circuit are the left atrium and the left ventricle. 14. Define pericarditis. Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium. Functions: 20. Explain the signs/symptoms of agina pectoris. The signs of agina pectoris may include the blockage of 1 or more arteries/ coronary heart diasese. Symptoms of agina pectoris include: chest pain, fatigue, dizziness, and the inability to excercise. The blood then empties up through the inferior and superior vena cava back into the right atrium. Red= Oxygenated blood Blue= Deoxygenated blood When the ventricles contract, the AV valves are closed, and the SL valves are open. Damage to the semilunar valve on the right side of the heart would affect blood flow to the pulmonary trunk. Superior vena cava: Delivers doxygenated blood from the upper body, head, neck, etc. Inferior vena cava: Carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body, lower limbs, etc. Right Atrium: Receives blood from the systemic circuit. Tricuspid valve: The papillary muscles contract which tenses the chordae tendineae limiting the movement of the cusps and preventing backflow. Right Ventricle: Discharges blood into the pulmonary circuit. Pulmonary semilunar valve: Guards the entrance to the pulmonary trunk. Once the Right ventricle is filled, the pulmonary semilunar valve opens to allow blood to flow to the pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary Arteries: Send blood to the lungs and away from the heart. Lungs: Gas exchange occurs to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. The blood then travels through the aorta where the blood then leads to all of the arteries of the body. 5. What role do the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles play in the normal function of the AV valves? 3. Why is the left Ventricle more muscular than the right ventricle? The role the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles play in the normal function of AV vales is during ventricular contraction, tension in the Papillary muscles pull against the chordae tendinae, which keep the cusps of the AV valve from going into the atrium. This action prevents the backflow of blood in to the atrium as the ventricle contracts. When ventricles relax, AV valves are open and the SL valves are closed. Chordae tendineae are loose and the papillary muscles are relaxed. Into the lungs, where the blood then becomes oxygenated. By: Victoria Skoney Up into the pulmonary arteries. The blood then goes to the body, arms, legs, brain, and organs.This is where the blood becomes deoxygenated. The veins from the entire body bring deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The more muscular left ventricle must generate enough force to propel blood throughout the body (except the lungs), whereas the right ventricle must generate only enough force to propel blood to the short distance to the lungs. Contraction of the papillary muscles pulls on the chordae tendineae, which prevent the AV valves from swinging into the atria. Questions: The causes of mitral valve prolapse could be 1 or both mitral cusps that have extra tissue bulging into the left atrium ech time the heart contracts: which causes regurgitation. 19. Heart murmurs are detected more/less frequently in the elderly? Heart murmurs are detected less frequently in the elderly. Through the pulmonary semilunar valve. 4. What are the causes of mitral valve prolapse? 9. What are the two chambers associated with the systemic circuit? The cause of arteriosclerosis could include: smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, and other factors that accumulate to plaque buildup. Symptoms may include chestpain,
Transcript: The pulmonary vein empties oxygen-rich blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart. Continued... When the ventricle is full, the mitral valve shuts. This prevents blood from flowing backward into the atrium while the ventricle contracts. Blood Flow The right and left sides of the heart work together. The pattern is repeated over and over, causing blood to flow continuously to the heart, lungs, and body continued... As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs where it is oxygenated. Continued... When the ventricle is full, the tricuspid valve shuts. This prevents blood from flowing backward into the atria while the ventricle contracts. As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your right atrium into your right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve. Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart. When the ventricle is full, the mitral valve shuts. This prevents blood from flowing backward into the atrium while the ventricle contracts. How Blood Flow Works Continued... Right Side of the Heart Continued... As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your left atrium into your left ventricle through the open mitral valve. Left Side of the Heart Continued... Continued... As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the aortic valve, into the aorta and to the body.
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