Transcript: Respiration A bird is animal with wings and feathers and are warm blooded and vertebrate Warm blooded: an animal which regulates its own body temperature. 1. When a bird swallows it’s food it goes down the esophagus and then is stashed away in the crop 2.Wet food moves on to the stomach. The first chamber of the two part stomach breaks down the acid and enzymes. 3.This partially digested portion of the food is sent to the gizzard (second chamber of stomach). The muscles in the gizzard squeezes the remainder and the stones grind the food. 4.The food moves on to the intestines. 5.Undigested food is ejected through the cloaca. Conservation Status Digestion Process To mate birds press their cloacas together. During this process the male transfers his sperm to the female. Some males have a penis in which they transfer their sperm to the female through her cloaca. Respiration Birds What do they all have in common At the moment there is a spread of bird pox. Bird pox is the same as the chicken pox but for birds. The effect it places on birds is difficult breathing, eating, and drinking Most birds are on the least concerned list from the IUCN However numbers are decreasing Many species have gone extinct due to the colonisation Birds have a four chambered heart and 2 seperate circulatory loops. One half of the heart is devoted to oxygen poor blood from the bird and this is sent to the lungs. The other half is for oxygen rich blood goes to the other chamber to be distributed throughout the body Wings Feathers Four chambered heart Ability to lay eggs Reproduction Beaks Birds have various types of beaks for different foods Insect eating bugs have sharp pointy bills which allows them to pick insects and seeds with ease Carnivorous birds: have hooked bills to tear apart prey Nectar eating birds: have long slim bills, this enables them to suck the nectar out of a flower. 1. Bird inhales air through nostrils 2. Air passes the nasal cavity where the air is filtered 3. Larynx 4. Trachea 5. Syrinx: here the air divides onto 2 differnt tracks 6. a) Air goes to posterior air sacs and exits 6. b) Air goes to cadual air sacs and then head to the lungs 7. Air goes to the lungs Current Information Template by Missing Link Images from Shutterstock.com What are birds?
Transcript: Habitats Ornithologists notice certain things when trying to identify a bird. Habitat –where the bird is located when spotted Season/Weather-what, are the conditions outside, where the bird is spotted? Size-how big is the bird? Behavior-what is the bird doing when you spot it? Flock/Alone? Scientific name: The recognized Latin name given to an organism Common name: Name based on normal Language of everyday life There is a certain way to act around birds so you don’t startle them. Quiet Stealthy Slow There are many different ways to attract birds to your house. You can make a bird house and but it on a tree Scatter bird seeds near the trees Get a bird fountain When you go out to the world, you see many miraculous and beautiful creatures. One of these creatures are bird. They are graceful and pleasant to watch.Bird watching is going to allow you to see these birds up close and find out more about them. With my help you could find and learn about these beautiful creatures. Bird diets How to Use Binoculars Ornithology Field Guide Your Birds experts here to help Parts of a Bird Characteristics What you Need to Know TOOLS TO USE • Field Guide • Binoculars • Pencil • Clipboard Birds are can be found near • Lakes • Bays • Forest • Grasslands • Rainforest • Jungles • Mountains • Plains • Valleys The ones in Maryland could be found anywhere due to Maryland having such a diverse environment. Color Phase Understanding what birds eat and the overall diet they prefer, is essential to know what to feed birds to attract them to your backyard. • Frugivorous birds, or frugivorous, are fruit-eating specialists • Carnivorous birds eat meat, including rodents, mammals, fish, amphibians and reptiles. • Insectivorous birds are specialized carnivores that feed on insects. 1. Get a map of your are 2. Carry tacks to mark places where you’ve seen the birds 3. If you can draw, quick sketches or take pictures of the land features. 4. Find out the type of bird you’re looking for and find its range 5. Start tracking! Range Maps Rage maps, are maps used to help find out where a bird is during a specific season. • The color pink-birds living in the summer • The color Purple-Birds in a permanent resident • The color blue -birds who live in the winter. What You'll See Each field guide has a color phase, which is the picture of the bird. Usually it can be Males in the spring Females in the winter Attracting 1. First, notice the binoculars you purchased. How many times do your binoculars magnify to the image? 2. To adjust the binoculars use the central focus button which is located in the middle of your binoculars Birds,Birds,and more BIRDS! How to Look For Birds
Transcript: The silver fern The plant the silver fern The falcon/karearea The Bird There are 38 species of falcon world wide but this one is native to new zealand they are found in the north island. the falcons do not build nests they dig under rocks and lay their eggs there is usually 2-4. They eat a range of animals such as insects, mammals and lizards but mainly birds. The males are also smaller then the females. The population of birds is between 5'000-8'000 ODE Birds and trees The silver fern ts scientific name is Cyathea dealbata. its plant family is "tree fern". tree ferns were present in Carboniferous swamps, and by 275 Million years ago and they had abundant forms similar then what we have today but larger. the fern is very recognizable for its silver white waxiness on the underside of the fronds. the color is only after 2 years of life. The silver fern can grow to a height of 10 meters and up to 8 meters in diameter. new zealand Falcon
Transcript: By Ethan Scharf People in my group: Cody, Wesley, Jenna, Anna and Forrest. Essential Question: How does elevation affect biotic and abiotic systems? Testable Questions (Purpose): 1. How does elevation affect the height of trees? 2. How does elevation affect the number of species at different elevations? 3. How does elevation affect the circumference of tree trunks? Tools/Materials: - 5 meter rope (Measuring out 100 sq. meter plot) - Flagging - Centimeter tape (Measuring tree circumference) - Field guide - Data table - Sample bags Procedures: For the first question you would need to measure the height of the trees at base level. 1. First you need to make a 10 by 10 meter box for a control. Then measure all the tree 10 by 10 box. 2. You would need a scale to measure the height of a tree, like finding the height of one of us and standing 10 feet away. 3. Then find how many pencils make up that person. Then stand 10 feet away from the tree that you are measuring and find how many pencils go into that tree. (ex. if 1 pencil makes up a 5 foot tall person, and the pencil goes into the tree 5 times, then the tree would be 25 feet tall.) 4. Then use the same scale as you go up the mountain. After that find an average. 1. For the second question, measure a 10 by 10 meter box and count the number of trees in that square. 2. Do the same thing as you go up the mountain and find an average. 1. For the third question, first measure out a 10 by 10 square meter box. 2. Then take a centimeter tape measure and measure the circumference of all of the trees in that area. 3. Then find an average. Conclusion: I've learned a lot about the effects on biotic and abiotic systems over the course of this study. One thing I learned is that biotic systems have to adapt as the elevation increases, but abiotic systems, since they aren't living, obviously don't have to adapt. One of my group's testable questions was 'What was the height of all the trees in our area?' Our hypothesis for that question was that the higher in elevation we go the tree's height will decrease. This is because the higher in elevation you go the more stunted the trees become. Our group's hypothesis is supported by information in our graph. Here is some information to support our hypothesis. My statement for this study is that the higher in elevation we go, the height of the tree will decrease due to the stronger elements. Tree Height: Elevation: Elevation: Elevation: 1,719' 3,052' 3,577' Conclusion (Continued): Our other testable question was 'How does elevation affect tree species at different elevations?' This is the hypothesis. 'We (our group) believes that at the first elevation there will be at least 10 different species but as we increase in elevation certain species will drop out and hardier species will replace them. This means that some species don't adapt to the elevation but others do.This hypothesis was supported by our study findings. Some information to support our hypothesis is that in our chart we found certain species like Beech and Yellow Birch to drop out and species like Birch and Fir to replace them as we climbed higher. My Statement: Our studies concluded that the higher in elevation we increased, the hardier species begin to replace the weaker species. Conclusion (further continued): My group's final testable question was 'How does elevation affect tree circumference at different elevations?' Our hypothesis was that since at higher elevations trees don't get as much nutrition and can't grow as well, the circumference measurement will be smaller. This hypothesis was supported by the information in our chart. Some information includes: Circumference Elevation: Elevation: Elevation: Measurement: 1,719' 3,052' 3,577' Tree 1: 25.5" 36" 3" Tree 2: 46" 21" 2" Tree 3: 48" 36" 2.5" My Statement: My group's studies concluded that as you increase in elevation, the circumference measurement will decrease since the trees can't grow as well. Error Analysis: We tried to control our experiments as much as possible. We measured the 100 square yard box exactly, and we only counted trees with a circumference of 3 inches or more. This way, our data should be as accurate as it can be, although sometimes we didn't name our trees the correct species, leading to some confusion. After we resolved that, we cleared up some wrong data. Recommendations: I think that to make our data more valid in the future we could have been more precise in identifying our tree species. For instance, we named fir pine, although there wasn't a single pine around where we took our studies. Next time, I think we could definitely be more careful. Other than that, I think our group did a great job with our studies. Connection to Other Systems: These study's evidence may affect many different systems, biotic and abiotic. First of all, tree circumference and height might affect a logging company by making it so they won't cut trees with a certain trunk circumference or height. Another example
Transcript: photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Won Short subjects Flowers And Trees Academy Award Burt Gillet Directed By Mickey Stayed Black And White Spencer GIles, Koroush Delsouz
Transcript: - Can be found: through Southeast Asia Africa Latin America In Costa Rica: in wet or dry forests with a 3-5 month dry season - native to Costa Rica - size: 40 m tall leaves: 15-45 cm (in length) 8-23 cm (in width) - small, white flowers - leaves are fuzzy on the under side - resistant to termites - found: throughout South America In Costa Rica: tropical forests either dry or moist - native to Costa Rica - Size: 40-60 m tall 8 m circumference leaves: 35-50 cm long - flaky bark - white flowers - grey-brown fruit - determined commercially extinct in El Salvador, Costa Rica - light grey bark - broadened crown - seed pods resemble an ear hence the nickname "Elephant Ear Tree" - used for shade coffee plantations cattle - found: Florida Arizona Texas Cuba In Costa Rica: dry forests and savannah habitats - native to Costa Rica - near threatened on a conservation scale - Size/ Morphology: 1.2 m wing span 51-56 cm in length long yellow legs bare throat and cheeks black wings, back, and underparts - diet carrion birds reptiles amphimbians - 37.6 years in captivity 17.7 years in natural habitat - eggs lain in groups of 2-3 within 3 days of each other - found: North America (except Northern Canada) Central America South America In Costa Rica: tropical forests in open and wooded areas - native to Costa Rica - least concern on a conservation scale - Size/ Morphology 1.8 m wingspan 75 cm in length female is slightly larger than male dark plumage white beak and legs red heads (immature birds have black heads) with white spots - 30 years in captivity, 16 years in natural habitat - eats carrion - crude nests - eggs lain in groups of 2-3 white with brown spots hatching occurs in 5-6 weeks - found: Northern Mexico to South Argentina In Costa Rica: edges of most forests and in the lowlands - native to Costa Rica - least concern on a conservation scale - Size/ Morphology wing span of 72.6 cm 33.02-40.64 cm in length dark brown wings light beige body and head - diet small mamals rodents birds lizards snakes small fish large insects - searches for prey from low hanging branches - sometimes they will corner prey against a fire Teak Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus) (Polyborus plancus) Broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus) Mahogany Turkey Vulture Tall Trees II and Birds II Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) Caribbean Mahogany (Swietenia mahogani) Northern Caracara (Caracara cheriway) (Enterolobium cylocarpum) Thank you! King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) Red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) This group of trees includes teak, mahogany, and guanacaste. Crested Caracara Guanacaste Dahat teak (Tectona hamiltoniana) (Cathartes aura) (Buteo magnirostris) Roadside Hawk By Ellen Jorgensen Honduran Mahogany (Swietenia humilis) Harino (Enterolobium schomburgkii) Venezuelan Mahogany (Swietenia candollei) (Tecona grandis) Birds II Tall Trees II Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) - found: southern North America Central America In Costa Rica: most areas - native to Costa Rica - Size 25-35 m tall 3 m in diameter Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) Philippine teak (Tectona philippinensis) (Swietenia macrophylla) These birds are classified as vultures and raptors: carnivorous birds of prey. They include the crested caracara, the turkey vulture, and the roadside hawk.
Transcript: Nitrogenous wastes are removed from the blood by the kidneys Converted to uric acid and deposited in the cloaca Water is absorbed Uric acid --> "bird droppings" Well-developed sense organs Navigation/flight Quick brain interpretation and response Bird brains are relatively large for their size Olfactory bulbs (taste and smell) are small Endotherms (generate their own body heat) A bird's feathers insulate its body enough to conserve most of its metabolic energy Allows the bird to warm its body more efficiently Feeding Small birds lose heat faster than larger ones Birds' beaks are adapted to the type of food they eat Majority of birds can fly Some cannot In flying birds, large bones are fused together Makes birds' skeleton more rigid Air spaces make bones lightweight Large chest muscles Respiration Birds have four-chambered hearts and two separate circulatory loops Complete separation of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood Ensures that oxygen collected is distributed to body tissue with maximum efficiency Circulation Reptile-like animals Maintain a constant internal body temperature Outer covering of feathers Two legs that are covered with scales Legs are used for walking or perching Front limbs modified into wings Form, Function, and Flight Reproductive tracts open into the cloaca Sex organs shrink when not breeding Enlarge when breeding Cloacas transfer sperm cells Bird eggs are amniotic eggs Most birds incubate their eggs until they hatch Complex system of air sacs and breathing tubes Ensures that air flows into the air sacs and out through lungs in one direction Excretion Groups of Birds Reproduction Movement Response What are Birds? Body Temperature Control
Transcript: Presented by PERSON for COMPANY trees TREES TREES By: Joyce Kilmer title title I think Trees, by Joyce Kilmer will be about nature. PICTURES PICTURES Poem 1 I think that I shall never see 2 A poem lovely as a tree. 3 A tree whose hungry mouth is prest 4 Against the earth’s sweet flowing breast; 5 A tree that looks at God all day, 6 And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 7 A tree that may in Summer wear 8 A nest of robins in her hair; 9 Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 10 Who intimately lives with rain. 11 Poems are made by fools like me, 12 But only God can make a tree. Author: Joyce Kilmer Poem You will never see Something more beautiful than nature Nature needs to be cared for Nature and trees are a gift Nature is peaceful Nature is peaceful Nature cares for other Animals, even humans Nature is beautiful Trees are important and We should take care of nature Paraphrase Paraphrase Connotation Connotation These are our four pieces of figurtive language in Trees. "I think that I shall never see a poem as lovely as a tree." (1,2) Simile Simile "Who intimatly lives with rain."(10) Hyperbole Hyperbole "And lifts her leafy arms to pray" (6) Personification Personification "Poems are made by fools like me, But only God can make a tree" (11,12) Rhyme Rhyme attitude/tone attitude/tone The tone is appreciative. "Poems are made by fools like me but only God can make a tree"(11,12) support support There is no shift in Trees. shift shift After we read Trees we found it is about how nature is great, but must be cared for. title revised title revised Trees, by Joyce Kilmer shows that nature is a gift and we must take care of it. theme theme 1 I think that I shall never see 2 A poem lovely as a tree. 3 A tree whose hungry mouth is prest 4 Against the earth’s sweet flowing breast; 5 A tree that looks at God all day, 6 And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 7 A tree that may in Summer wear 8 A nest of robins in her hair; 9 Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 10 Who intimately lives with rain. 11 Poems are made by fools like me, 12 But only God can make a tree. Author: Joyce Kilmer Poem Again Poem Again
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