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Biotechnology PowerPoint presentation

Transcript: Biotechnology Louis Terrero P:2 qESTION 1 Section 1 1) How does biotechnology impacts individuals, society, and/or the environment? Introduction Answer Biotechnology has an endless amount of positive impacts on people, society, and the environment. For example, it helps protect the crops from pest and the environment that may impact the crop in a negative way. Therefor it helps farm to grow more crops, which means there is more agriculture in society, which provides more food and meals for individuals with lots of proteins. Although biotech has many pros but it still has its downside on society and individuals! For example, creating new allergic reactions, higher prices for farms, and more. Pictures Pictures of biotechnology Define the following and state ways in which each is utilized: Section 2 DNA FINGERPRINT Explanation: • DNA fingerprinting “…is the process of determining an individual’s DNA characteristics. In lines of, "DNA profiling". Don’t let the name DNA fingerprinting narrow you mind. DNA fingerprinting doesn’t just have to do with the fingerprint but really any sample that holds DNA. For example, hair, blood or tissue of an organism, saliva, fingerprints, and so much more. This is mainly use in criminal investigations, prison, zoology, agriculture, some technology, etc. u recombinant DNA Explanation: • Recombinant DNA, “Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination that bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.” stated by, “Recombinant DNA”. Recombinant DNA is utilized in three ways. According to, “What is biotechnology?” It reads, “Recombinant DNA technology has also proven important to the production of vaccines and protein therapies such as human insulin, interferon and human growth hormone. It is also used to produce clotting factors for treating haemophilia and in the development of gene therapy.” In other words, Recombinant DNA is mainly utilized in serums, and in protein treatments. genetic modification Explanation: • Genetic modification is basically genetic manipulation since it modifies the genes of an organism to change their characteristics by using biotechnology. According to, table one in “Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Transgenic Crops and Recombinant DNA Technology” shows that corn, soybean, canola , and plums are some example of approved genetic modification commercial products. Gene Therapy Explanation: • Gene therapy is a trial method that uses genes to cure or prevent disease. By replacing a nonfunctional DNA mutated with a functional gene and using viral vectors to distribute them to the cells. Some examples on the way gene therapy are exploited are, “cystic fibrosis, adenosine deaminase deficiency, familial hypercholesterolemia, cancer, and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID0 syndrome.” Stated by Britannica. What is the difference, if any, between genetic engineering and genetic modification? Section 3 What are some of the risk and benefits associated with the widespread use of genetic engineering in agriculture? GEnetic Modification Response: Genetic engineering is one type of genetic modification that involves the intentional introduction of a targeted change in a plant, animal, or microbial gene sequence to achieve a specific result. Examples of successful Genetic engineering Mouse-ear cress. Purple tomatoes. Western corn rootworm, European corn borer. Onions that do not make you cry. Golden rice. Bananas. Genetic Engineering Response: Genetic modification refers to a range of methods (such as selection, hybridization, and induced mutation) used to alter the genetic composition of domesticated plants and animals to achieve a desired result. Some examples of these methods: Interspecies crossing, is when food plants carry genes that originate in different species, moved both by nature and by human interference. Mutation Breeding: Induced Chemical and X-ray Mutagenesis, is the method of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to produce mutations with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars. Simple Selection, a genetically heterogeneous population of plants is inspected plants with the most desired traits, such as improved tastiness and yield—are selected for continued propagation. The others are eaten or discarded. Response: There are many concerning problems about genetic engineering in agriculture. It can create unwanted traits to the food supply, cause allergic and toxic reactions, Unintentional transfer of genes from one GM plat or animal to another plant or animal not planned for genetic modifications and more. risks! risks! benefits! Response: Some of the benefits of GE would include, more nutritious food, adapting the crops to different environments, an increase in the food supply with less coast and longer lasting, and so much more. Overall, there are more risk than benefits to GE in agriculture. What


Transcript: NSF Committee Agreement After discussing with the committee we have come up with a way to break up the money in a manner that is appropriate. As a Committee, we have decided to fund 4 out of 5 research projects. These four are : Conservation and Breeding of Endangered Species Vaccine Production in Developing Countries Genetic Engineering With Proteins Pest Resistant Crops There is one that wasn't funded After reviewing and discussing we came to the conclusion that Ramiro’s project, on a pre-symptom identification of cancer would not receive funding. The presentation proposed stated that most of the money would go to charity and no research would be done therefore we considered it unscientific. The group then decided to follow along with Carlos’s idea to join investments to form a single lab in which many projects would unfold. The stakeholders? How/Why? Most of the groups require a lab for our projects of genetically engineered proteins, crops, and vaccines. The only person who may not benefit from our plan of a joint lab would be Kolby. Kolby is working with conservation of endangered species does not require a lab as she will work in the labs of zoos she partners with but still requires the 2.5 million for creating a habitat for the species in which she would later perform the biotechnological procedures. The Distribution of the Money This will go towards the building of the and the gathering of the equipment. (i.e. PCR machine, incubators, autoclaves and more.) Where is the rest of the money going? It is going to be split amoungst the 4 "contestants" so that they may fund for materials not included (i.e. plasmids, restriction enzymes, patents and more) they may also use it for something else such as research for what they are doing. Overall the breakdown was 10 million for the construction of the lab and 2.5 million for supplies and other necessary things as stated before. The End Each person/contestant willl each get an equal amount of 2.5 million. Carlos, Taite, Casssandra 10 million


Transcript: Biotechnology About The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project launched in 1990, through funding from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Department of Energy, whose labs joined with international collaborators and resolved to sequence 95% of the DNA in human cells in just 15 years. Meanwhile in the UK, John Sulston and his colleagues at the MRC's Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, had, for several years, been working at mapping the genome of the nematode worm and had resolved that sequencing the entire genome of the worm was finally feasible. The first challenge was to create a map of the human genome - a set of index marks on the genome code, used to position the sequences of letters of code that would come later. Researchers essentially broke many copies of the genome into fragments, each around 150,000 letters of code (or base-pairs) long. They inserted the fragments into a bacterial artificial chromosome that could be grown in E. coli bacteria which divided, thereby replicating the DNA samples to create a stable resource - a 'library' of DNA clones. Where the cloned fragments came from or which overlapped was not known at this point. As the human sequence data was pouring out from centres across the globe, researchers were afforded glimpses of the kind of power that the human genome sequence might have for medical advance. In 1995, researchers from the Sanger Centre, with international collaborators, located the BRCA2 gene, associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Elsewhere, as early as 1993, a US team had located the MSH2 gene, which increases the risk of colon cancer for carriers. In Canada, researchers found five variants on the FAD gene, which together confer an almost 100 per cent risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Genetic engineering Genetic engineering is the manipulation of an organism’s genes. It is also called gene splicing, gene modification, and gene manipulation (GM). There are many uses for genetic engineering. In some cases, it can be beneficial but in other cases, in can be harmful. When scientists do genetic engineering, they take living organisms to the lab and change parts of their DNA. DNA is the blueprint for the individuality of an organism. Molecular biologists have discovered many enzymes that change the structure DNA in many living organisms. They have discovered that these enzymes can cut and join strands of DNA. the world’s only strictly genetic engineering curricula, have successfully created a dog that can glow in the dark. Gene Therapy Gene therapy is the use of DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease. It derives its name from the idea that DNA can be used to supplement or alter genes within an individual's cells as a therapy to treat disease. Protein therapy delivers a therapeutic level of protein that would otherwise be absent or in insufficient amounts in individuals with an illness. It is a medical treatment that has wide-reaching therapeutic possibilities and applications currently being developed in many fields, including cancer,diabetes, and Brain disease. Example Structure Biotechnology In Pulic Understanding In Manipulating Genomes Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector. Effect Events Debate Genetically modified foods Several scientists argue that in order to meet the demand for food in the developing world, a second Green Revolution with increased use of GM crops is needed. Others argue that there is more than enough food in the world and that the hunger crisis is caused by problems in food distribution and politics, not production. some critics and environmentalists have changed their minds on the issue with respect to the need for additional food supplies.[ Embryonic stem cells Many believe that embryonic stem cell research is bad. They see an embryo as a baby, a life, a person, and therefore it's wrong to use the cells for research because they believe it is killing an unborn child. Medical researchers believe that embryonic stem cell research has the potential to significantly help people who have disabilities, failing body organs or other problems. Cloning Pro Cloning is playing God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Cloning treats children as objects. Children will be manufactured by an expensive technological process that is subject to quality control. Con The technology is unsafe. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family. Reproductive cloning is contrary to human dignity. Cloning will lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Cloning will lead to a lack of diversity amongst the human population Human reproductive cloning is unnecessary. The effects of biotechnology have permeated the labs in which


Transcript: BIOTECHNOLOGY TIMELINE (1900 - 1970) Hybrid Plants PANDAN + COTTON = PANDAN FIBER 1902 "Genetics" Cell-culturing techniques are developed The first automatic protein sequencer is perfected 1930 1933 New wheat varieties increase yields by 70 percent 1928 3D structure of DNA (DNA double helix) discovered by Watson and Crick Hybrid DNA-RNA molecules are created by exploiting base pairing The electron microscope is used to identify and characterize a bacteriophage Bacteria are used to treat sewage for the first time 1943 Discovery of transposable elements or "jumping genes" in corn by McClintock Isolation of enzyme involved in the synthesis of a nucleic acid 1970 1964 1942 "Biotechnology" first used by a Hungarian agricultural engineer 1963 1951 According to Pauling, sickle cell anemia is a "molecular disease" resulting from a mutation 1938 Japan perfected the fermentation process 1906 DNA made in a test tube 1944 First in vivo culture of animal cells Patent for plant breeding, Plant Patent Act, was passed by the U.S. Congress 1957 Penicillin mass-produced in microbes 1919 1958 1969 Identification of specific restrictrion nucleases paved the way for gene cloning 1914 Discovery of phages or bacterial viruses 1915 DNA is shown to be the material substance of the gene 1953 Genes are linked with hereditary disorders The genetic code is understood for the first time First cancer-causing virus discovered by Rous 1967 First enzyme synthesis in in vitro The human growth hormone is discovered by Evans and Long 1960 1956 - 1970 1955 1909 1956 "Immunology" RT is discovered independently in murine and avian retroviruses The first antibiotic, penicillin, is discovered by Fleming 1900 - 1930 "Genetic engineering" is first used by a Danish microbiologist 1954 1941 1927 Norman Borlaug receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his discovery of restriction enzyme by cutting DNA molecules at specific sites 1949 1920 Hybrid corn commercially available in U.S. X-rays cause mutation as discovered by Muller Discovery of messenger RNA (mRNA) DNA is the "transforming factor" and is the material of genes according to Avery Change to a single amino acid results to sickle cell anemia 1931 - 1955 1961 1911 The existence of reverse transcriptase (RT) is predicted Discovery of enzyme DNA polymerase I by Kornberg paved the way to understanding of DNA replication 1907 "Molecular biology" First biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt, was registered by USDA

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