Transcript: A structure, behavior, or physiological process that helps an organism survive and reproduce in a particular environment. A gene mutation refers to a change in nucleotide sequence of a specific gene. Change in single base of a gene sequence The hat drank the milk Silent Mutations Synonymous mutation Deletions can involve either the loss of a single base or the loss of a larger portion of DNA All depends on environmental conditions. Envision a population of beetles... Variation in phenotypes. One trait is preferred by the predator, creating differential reproduction. Heredity Final outcome? What if they mate at a rate different than the occurence of that genotype in the population? Jean Baptiste Lamarck Acquired characteristics could be transmitted from one generation to the next. All of the resulting mice had tails. Only direct mutation in DNA of gametes. Modern evidence- Epigenetics Columbia University Medical Center Roundworms that developed resistance to a virus passed on this trait to future generations. Via viral silencing RNA's working independently of the genome. Mice were given mental stimulation at a young from a young age. Improved memory capacity. Passed it on to their offspring after returning to normal conditions. The use of warning coloration to advertise that a prey is dangerous or unpalatable Predators quickly learn to aviod the prey once they have unpleasent experiences The prey is now easily identifiable Advertises to potential predators The ability of an organism to avoid detection Fritz Muller Nymphalidae limentis Unpalatable to predators Mimic developed due to supergene Mimicry works due to population numbers Henry Bates Female-limited polymorphic mimicry 11 alleles Mimicry gene- H Models vary, but they are most commonly distasteful species of Danaidae and Acraeidae Regulatory gene hypothesis Controls the expression of several unlinked genes Supergene hypothesis Mimicry gene is actually a tightly linked cluster of genes Genes with related functions for pattern are located close together on the chromosome Imitates cypress pine tree Example of crypsis Gene Flow African Swallowtail Methyl groups (CH3) attach themselves to specific parts of DNA molecules. Translocation Genetic Drift vs. Environmental factors Aposematism Hybridization- exchange of genes between species Genetic Mutations German biologist August Weismann disproved it by cutting the tails off of a population of mice. Duplication Poison Dart Frog HOW DO ADAPTATIONS DEVELOP? Dendrobates pumilio Dendrobates leucomelas Missence Mutations Deletion Crypsis Slight chemical modifications in DNA and DNA- associated proteins Auditory clicks Natural Selection Completely Random Mimicry Viceroy Butterfly Non-Random Mating Dendrobates auratus Point Mutation The cat drank the milk Nonsense Mutations Dendrobates tinctorus Titan Stick Insect Inversion Coral snake Occurs during cross-over phase of meiosis Batesian Lamarckism Mullerian
Transcript: Go on Exchange present your country abroad Work with different mentalities Diversity Explore different cultures Be a Member Develop your skills Have an impact Enrich your knowledge AIESEC Be a Leader Lead your team Achieve your vision Coach others Be a mentor EXPERIENCE YOUR AIESEC JOURNEY Gives you a great experience
Transcript: Activity Level of Crickets Crickets, Acheta domesticus Will the activity level change? 36 Crickets; 18 in control, 18 in experimental Scale: 1-5 There is no difference in the activity level. Crickets do not care about the environment they live in What could have gone wrong?
Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. http://lifehacker.com/5401954/programmer-101-teach-yourself-how-to-code 2. http://www.bluecloudsolutions.com/blog/cost-develop-app/ 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week
Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" http://www.stoprapenow.org/uploads/advocacyresources/1282164625.pdf Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking http://www.womenundersiegeproject.org/blog/entry/the-need-for-numbers-on-rape-in-warand-why-theyre-nearly-impossible-to-get Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity
Transcript: photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli FIN Metaphase 1 • The nucleolus disappears during prophase I. • In the cytoplasm, the meiotic spindle, consisting of microtubules and other proteins, forms between the two pairs of centrioles as they migrate to opposite poles of the cell. • The nuclear envelope disappears at the end of prophase I, allowing the spindle to enter the nucleus. • Prophase I is the longest phase of meiosis, typically consuming 90% of the time for the two divisions. Meiosis Prophase 1 Metaphase 1 Prophase 1 • The centrioles are at opposite poles of the cell. • The pairs of homologous chromosomes (the bivalents), now as tightly coiled and condensed as they will be in meiosis, become arranged on a plane equidistant from the poles called the metaphase plate. • Spindle fibers from one pole of the cell attach to one chromosome of each pair (seen as sister chromatids), and spindle fibers from the opposite pole attach to the homologous chromosome (again, seen as sister chromatids). Mission: Formation of a well balanced and integral person committed to God and his church Vission: The nurturance of seed of priestly vocation. Through all holistic formation programs. Rooted in the gospel values centered on Christ under the maternal guidance of blessed virgin Mary and actualized in a community of faith. Prophase 1 • At the start of prophase I, the chromosomes have already duplicated. During prophase I, they coil and become shorter and thicker and visible under the light microscope. • The duplicated homologous chromosomes pair, and crossing-over (the physical exchange of chromosome parts) occurs. Crossing-over is the process that can give rise to genetic recombination. At this point, each homologous chromosome pair is visible as a bivalent (tetrad), a tight grouping of two chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids. The sites of crossing-over are seen as crisscrossed nonsister chromatids and are called chiasmata (singular: chiasma). Julio David Angelo Castro Marion Maquiraya Jek Ramos
Transcript: The central dogma of molecular biology and the enzyme ‘reverse transcriptase By: Osman Berke Kababulut (Berke Ka.) The Central Dogma of molecular biology was first stated by Francis Crick in 1958 Young Francis Crick Old Francis Crick "The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information. It states that such information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid." Basically Biological information flows in only one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins. The DNA replicates its information in a process that involves many enzymes: replication. The DNA codes for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) during transcription. Messenger RNA carries coded information to ribosomes. The ribosomes "read" this information and use it for protein synthesis. This process is called translation. The DNA has the basic instructions for what needs to happen, the process of transcription creates an RNA copy which serves and an intermediate between DNA and protein. The RNA is used as a template to tell the cell what amino acids to bring in to make the protein. Reverse transcriptase Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Transcript: The preimplantation genetic diagnosis process : -begins with the normal process of in vitro fertilization that includes : ovary stimulation through medication egg retrieval fertilization in a laboratory -over the next three days the embryo will divide into 8 cells The preimplantation genetic diagnosis involves the following steps : 1. First, one or two cells are removed from the embryo. *this is done using a microscope with very small pipits and special culture media 2. Next, DNA is retrieved from the cell and copied through a process known as polymerase chain reaction, PCR. 3. Finally, by molecular analysis, the DNA sequence code is evaluated to determine if the inheritance of a problematic gene is present. Once the PGD procedure has been performed and embryos have been analyzed using PGD to choose the gender, implantation will be attempted through, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). 99.99% success rate The procedure is performed before implantation thus reducing the need for amniocentesis later in pregnancy. AMNICENTASIS a.k.a. amniotic fluid test is a medical procedure used, where a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalties. The procedure may help reduce the costs normally associated with birth defects. Only embryos that are free of the gene are implanted. does not always result in pregnancy PGD is significantly more expensive than conceiving a pregnancy the usual way and undergoing prenatal testing This technology is still considered experimental Has this been done in Malaysia? YES! There are various PGD clinics in Malaysia, including Tropicana Medical Centre's Fertility Centre which offers the procedure. Examples of diseases for which a family might be at risk include: Huntington’s disease, hereditary ataxia and other adult onset testable diseases. How the gender of the baby is determined/How to select the gender of the baby. In China, a family is only allowed to own one child. Male is always the desired gender and dominant in the family. People wish to decide and select the gender of their baby using certain technology. animation. The procedure is performed before implantation thus allowing the couple to decide if they wish to continue with the pregnancy. VIDEOOOOO. DRAWBACKS 1. Objections to PGD based on its effect (eg. from abortion to embryonic stem cell research) People who think that the embryo or fetus is a person will object to creating and destroying embryos, and oppose most uses of PGD. 2. Others believe that preimplantation embryos - too rudimentary in development to have interests or rights, but that they deserve special respect as the first stage toward a new person. 3. Under this view PGD is ethically acceptable when done for good reasons, such as preventing offspring with serious genetic disease. 4. A second set of objections arises from the fact of selection itself, and the risks of greatly expanded future selection of embryos and children. 5. Sometimes based on religious views about the nature of human reproduction, ethical objections to selecting offspring traits raises two kinds of ethical concerns. ADVANTAGES ETHICAL ISSUES interview.
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