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Transcript: Surgical options for both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms What is a CT scan? Ruptured cerebral aneurysms account for 3-5% of all strokes. Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm all depends on the size. If the aneurysm is small (about 4cm in diameter) there is no immediate treatment other than watching and waiting to see if the aneurysm grows in size and poses a greater risk. When and if the aneurysm grows to no more than 5.5cm in diameter then it is time to weigh the risks of surgery against leaving it be. Surgery will indeed happen when the aneurysm reaches over 5.5cm and is growing rapidly at 0.5cm daily as this large aneurysm poses a serious risk of rupturing. About two thirds of the people who have aortic aneurysms are male. About 1 in 4 aortic aneurysms occur in the thoracic area of the aorta which is higher up in the chest. Cerebral Aneurysms can be caused by... A throbbing sensation in the abdomen Back pain Abdominal pain Coughing Loss of voice Breathing difficulties Problems swallowing Blood loss and failure of major organs such as kidneys Pulsing in the abdomen Mycotic aneurysms are those caused by bacterial and fungal infections that have damaged any artery Atherosclerotic aneurysms are caused by build up in the arteries Symptoms of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm Symptoms of an aneurysm Usually when an aneurysm hasn't ruptured no symptoms will occur until the aneurysm gets larger and begins pressing on nearby vital structures. How can I prevent getting an aneurysm? MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and is a test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to get images of organs or structures inside the body. Usually MRIs are used get images that will give different information than ultrasounds, X-rays or CT scans. The symptoms of an aneurysm depend on both the location and whether or not the aneurysm has ruptured... Endovascular coiling Double vision Dilated pupils Pain above and behind the eye Sudden headaches Aortic aneurysms were the primary cause of 10 597 deaths in 2009 and a factor in more than 17 215 deaths. Who can be affected by an aneurysm? Aneurysms can also be classified because of their causes... During this type of aneurysm surgery the aneurysm is actually removed entirely. Clamps are placed both above and below the aneurysm before it is cut out and removed. Then a surgeon will insert a fabric tube or graft where the aneurysm was removed and sew it onto both sides of the aorta before the rest of the chest is closed up again. Surgical clipping Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) are often called the "silent killer" as symptoms usually don't occur. If surgical clipping isn't possible a surgeon will block of the aneurysm and use an artery (usually from the leg) to attach above the blocked artery/aneurysm and bypass the blood flow to the aneurysm through the graft. Surgical clipping Endovascular coiling Artery occlusion and bypass Aortic aneurysm surgery This specific surgery is less invasive than surgical clipping. It involves a surgeon inserting a hollow plastic tube through an artery, usually the groin, and feeding it through the body to the aneurysm. Using the hollow tube the surgeon inserts a guide wire to push a softer wire into the aneurysm which then coils up and by disrupting the blood flow causes it to clot and essentially seals of the aneurysm. An aneurysm is an enlarged blood vessel (artery) which balloons out and swells at its weakest point either from damage or a weakness in the blood vessel's wall. Weaknesses in the artery walls that usually are present since birth Hypertension/high blood pressure Arteriosclerosis where cholesterol, platelets, fibrin, and other substances build up on the arterial wall Sudden severe headaches Nausea Vomiting Problems with eyesight Seizures Loss of consciousness Confusion Drooping of eyelids Stiff neck Sensitivity to light What is an MRI? A CT scan or a CAT scan is a computerized test that takes many 2D X-ray pictures of the inside of a section in the body to create a whole 3D image using a series of beams that move in an arc which creates a much more detailed that an X-ray image. Before a CT scan a patient will usually consume a barium meal if the CT scan is going to be looking at the abdomen as the dye in the liquid appears white on screen which makes the image much clearer. During a surgical clipping the surgeon will clip of an aneurysm using a tiny metal clip on the neck of the aneurysm that stops blood flow to it. Usually this surgery is done for cerebral aneurysms. They remove a section of the skull to get better access to the aneurysm in order to clip it off. This surgery can be done on either ruptured or unruptured aneurysms. There are two main types of aneurysms: Aortic aneurysms which occur in the aorta OR... Cerebral aneurysms which occur in an artery in the brain Aneurysms that are larger than 2.54cm are called "Giant" aneurysms. Marfan syndrome (a genetic disorder of connective tissue

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