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Acquisition Presentation

Transcript: Berko and Brown (1960) Concerned with how production lags behind comprehension during language acquisition. Because we are using vulnerable participants, we will undergo the following procedures to ensure our participants are at ease and comfortable to take part. >>5 words will include a word-initial /r/ and 5 a word-medial /r/ What We Aim to Discover C: Child ; E: Investigator [Taken from Video Transcript 04] Studied approximant production and perception in both normal and articulation-delayed preschool children (3;0 years) focusing on contrasts of /w/ and /r/, /w/ and /l/ and /r/. aims of our project Performance of task may not be dependent on their competence or performance but child-like level of attention. 30% of these will not include an /r/ phoneme (ie. 6) 70% of these will include an /r/phoneme (ie. 14) Completion of parental consent forms Stage Two He produced a study which looked at a 4;4 year old boy with language delay and found gliding was common. We will analyse children who produce a glide and children who don't separately, as well as determining whether the positioning of phoneme /r/ makes a difference to the comprehension and production tasks. This is Rudiger. He is from the Arctic, but he doesn't like the cold so he is moving to Australia! There is a problem though, he doesn't know how to get there.. Can you help him learn English so he can ask for directions? Collecting the Data : Figures Participant Specific Limitations The most common error patterns were liquid derivations in words such as ‘red.’ Perception was tested through a choice identification task - picking pictures which matched a given word. Children were encouraged to produce approximants in word initial, medial and final positions. The normal children were highly accurate whereas the delayed scored lower. Those who struggled with perception also struggled with pronunciation. Overall, errors on the /r/-/l/ phonemes were greater than the others and the difference between /w/-/r/ errors and the control /w/-/b/ were not significant. Six graphs will be produced in total. In consideration of the previous literature, we expect to find the following results in our experiment: Jakobson (1968) gives the example of Irksutsk (1921), whereby a male infant adopted /j/ in place of a liquid after assuming the manner of articulation from his sister and overgeneralising it throughout his whole vocabulary. Sample Specific Limitations Children that make production errors are more likely to make comprehension errors. “…children with SLI [Speech language Impediment] seem to be more likely than younger, normally developing children to show large variability, even when the phonetic contexts of the words and the children’s own consonant inventories provide no rationale for it. This is also seen in controlled studies in which new words (that do or do not conform to the children’s existing phonological patterns) are introduced to the children.” Leonard, L. (1998) Children with specific language impairment. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Methodology Analysis Analysing the Data The attention span of children between 5;0 and 7;0 is variable. The chosen words the children will 'teach' will be prompted by picture cue-cards. The words covered will include an /r/ sound within both word-medial and word-initial positions. eg. '/r/ed' and 'bed/r/oom'. Also include words not featuring an /r/ sound. Bowen, C. (1998) Developmental phonological disorders. A practical guide for families and teachers. Melbourne: Acer Press Literature Review Preisser, D. A. ; Hodson, B. W. & Paden, E. P. (1988) Developmental Phonology: 18-29 months. In: Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 53, pp.125-130 Kilminster and Laird (1978) suggested that the ‘voiced liquid /r/ in red’ was accurately realised by at least 75% of 5;0 children. The Fis Phenomenon 33.3% of these words will not include an /r/ phoneme (ie. 5) 66.6% of these will include an /r/ phoneme (ie. 10) Analysing the Data Children will be able to distinguish that gliding is a phonological error rather than a dialectal feature (such as l-vocalisation). We will ensure participants feel at ease by giving them the option to back out or have a break if they wish to do so Parents and children (where possible) will be informed of what the study entails and what the data will be used for Methodology The results of all participants will be averaged within age groups and represented in graphs. Children who produce glides in stage one will also be considered separately to those who don't, in stage two. The children in the sample all attend a primary school local to the investigation. Realisation of Approximants in the Later Stages of Phonological Development Broen, Strange and Doyle (1983) tests Grunwell, P & Russell, J. (1990) A Phonological Disorder in an English-Speaking Child - A Case Study. In Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. Vol.4(1), pp.29-38 These will include two graphs for word-initial and word-medial

Acquisition Presentation

Transcript: Build Facility Threats: Financial Ratios Whole Earth Naturals Financial Ratios 500 Mill=> Build manufacturing faciltiy 522 Mill=> Buy Whole Earth Naturals $75 Million - Solid reputation - Renovated Facilities Strengths: Opportunities: Buy Whole Earth Naturals Present Value Working Capital: -27 Mill. Gross Profit Margin: 52% - Cash flow - Increasing cost of sales -Cyclone in India Weaknesses: No earnings during construction Dan is Sexy and he knows it. Acquisition Price $522 Million 5 Years Threats: Conclusion - Immediate entry into Latin American market -High demand for all natural products SWOT Build $0 Weaknesses: Opportunities: Time Disadvantage Questionable Growth (Invested at 2.3502% APR) Forgone Interest Why buy? Latin American Market Profit generating ability Established reputation Personel in cost reduction SWOT Buy Cecilia Fernandes, Audrey Metzger Bailey, David Schuler, Sahajanand Dave, Mary Reilley $64.3 Million Unexpected Setbacks Delayed Profit Estimated Earnings $15 Million / Year Whole Earths profits offset the forgone interest SWOT Build Expansion of Company Entering New Markets Time Value of Money Strengths: No Prior Problems "Your Company" - Newly acquired debt Team: Accumulated Appreciation 3 - 5 Years Whole Earth Naturals SWOT Buy (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Future Value $500 Million Build Vs Buy 3 - 5 Years BUY Why not build? Lack of income Risk of failure Debt Ratio: 68.9% Quick Ratio: .6 to 1 Current Ratio: .94

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