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1984 Background

Transcript: The Basics Written by Eric Arthur Blair Pen name: George Orwell 1903-1950 Orwell background and reasons for 1984 Grew up with a political mindset At age 33, he travels with a British friend to fight "against Facism" during the Spanish Civil War A Sniper's bullet hits him in the throat, but it misses his main artery by inches. This injury, along with other medical issues, forced Orwell to be deemed 'unfit' for service at the outbreak of WWII During WWII his wife works in the British Censorship Dept. Orwell gets a job as a BBC Journalist The censorship, propoganda, and office life freaks Orwell out. Orwell saw Totalitarian and military regimes changing the world and did not agree with where the world was heading. Continues to work on Animal Farm and begins brainstorming 1984 His wife dies a surprising death after a hysterectomy, causing Orwell to devote much of his time towards writing... Leaves London 'literary life' and heads to a small island to write his masterpiece. Orwell ends up becoming very ill with Tuberculosis in 1949 Passes away less than 1 year after 1984 is published. 1984 In the "Brainstorm" section, write 8-12 words/phrases/questions that come to mind when you think of 1984 When done brainstorming, discuss some of your words/phrases with a classmate nearby. ...then each of you go to the board and write a word/phrase from your list for discussion. Write 5 new words/phrases that you have now come up with after watching the movie trailer. 1984 is intended to be a satire Satire uses ridicule or scorn in a humorous way to expose vices/push particular ideologies or beliefs. Satire has 1-3 main purposes. 1) To ridicule the opposite of author's opinion 2) To appeal to those agreeing with the author 3) To sway/persuade those caught in the 'swing vote' The ultimate goal of Satire is to incite social action through humor Forms of Satire Irony: when the action is the opposite of the intended purpose Parody: a humorous imitation of an original Sarcasm: a harsh or bitter expression to hurt and make apparent to the truth. Innuendo: a sometimes derogatory insinuation with harmful connotation Invective: Harsh or abusive language directed at a person/cause/belief Burlesque: An extreme exaggeration with comedic intention Orwell creates a world in 1984 that he envisions could happen post WWII He uses many real-life occurences to influence his novel. A critique of Stalinism and the trends of the Western World The dystopian world (such as in 1984, V for Vendetta, The Matrix, etc.) is often used to show the horrors of oppression and control through the disguise of utopia. Created new vocabulary for us with "Orwellian, doublethink, Big Brother, and Newspeak" all translating into modern English. The World of 1984 Oceania is one of three super continents that were created after WWII's fallout. All three super-states are perpetually at War with each other (Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia) World is divided up into three main classes Inner Party Outer Party Proles (proletariats) 4 Ministries of Oceania Ministry of Peace (MiniPax) Ministry of Plenty (MiniPlenty) Ministry of Truth (MiniTrue) Ministry of Love (MiniLuv) Minipax reports Oceania's perpetual state of war. War keeps the people with a sense of purpose, a sense of unity. War allows Big Brother to keep people in fear and scared. Miniplenty controls the rations of food and goods. The Miniplenty publishes false records and sees to it that the people are continuously in favor of rationing and suffering for the 'greater good' MiniTrue controls information to the people: news, entertainment, history, education, etc. Winston (the protagonist) works in the RecDep (Records Department) and alters/changes historical records in accordance with what the Party and Big Brother desires. The MiniLuv is the most intense and terrifying of all Ministries. This Ministry arrests, monitors, and 'deals' with dissidents. Setting: Airstrip One (formerly London), Oceania

1984 Background Research

Transcript: The Life and Context of George Orwell and 1984 Career of George Orwell "George Orwell Published." George Orwell Published. Web. 02 Feb. 2016. "George Orwell Biography." A&E Networks Television. Web. 02 Feb. 2016. "Twenty-Five Facts About George Orwell." Writing As I Please. Word Press, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2016. He used George Orwell as his pen name, his real name was Eric Blair. George Orwell supported socialism, and he said all of his works were written "against totalitarianism" and "for democratic socialism". George Orwell died January 21st, 1950, at the age of 46. The cause of death was tuberculosis. Published Works (novels): Burmese Days A Clergyman's Daughter Keep the Aspidistra Flying Coming up for Air Animal Farm Nineteen Eighty-Four While Orwell is best known for his novels, he was also published often in newspapers, and wrote essays throughout his career. Interesting Facts of George Orwell Novel Context and History George Orwell was born in India in 1903, but he moved to England a year after being born. Orwell always loved writing, and he wrote his first poem when he was four. He was 11 when he first was published in a local newspaper. Orwell was a member of the India Imperial Police Force for five years, returning to England afterward to become a writer. Work Cited In 1984, Communism is viewed as the largest issue generally. During Orwell's writing period, the first half of the 1900s, Communism had a large presence in Eastern Europe. This was a very prominent part of history, especially for Europeans, and it allowed Orwell to incorporate and essentially encompass the idea of Communism into his writing. Thematic Statement Personal Life of George Orwell George Orwell's Connection to his Works Early Life of George Orwell 1984 Background Research Orwell wanted to write about "underdogs", and to do so, he willingly lived in poverty in both Paris and London in order to communicate with the impoverished. George Orwell had small blue circles tattooed on his hands because he was quite superstitious. While he supported Socialism, he really hated Communism. Orwell fought in the Spanish Civil War, and was shot in the throat by a sniper (fighting Communists, this is where he began to hate them). In 1984, George Orwell presents the idea that totalitarianism leads to a lack of individualism and more rebellion from those participating in the system. The two most popular works of George Orwell, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, essentially shine light on the pitfalls of Communism. There was an obvious connection of these books to Orwell's general dislike for Communism, and he portrays the bad effects of Communism in his most popular books.

1984 Background

Transcript: 1984 Character List Communist Russia & 1984 Winston’s mother– disappeared years ago; appears only in Winston’s dreams and vague memories. Prole Woman-A heavyset neighbor of Winston’s, he watches her singing to herself as she hangs out the laundry. She is a symbol of the future, representing the spirit of the proletariat that cannot be crushed. Stalin Re-writes History...Literally Emmanuel Goldstein–Enemy of the People, commander of the Brotherhood, former member of the Party, author of the “book,” probably a creation of the Party. Katharine–Winston’s wife, disappeared 11 years ago, loyal member of the Party. Published in 1948 and set 36 years in the future, 1984 is George Orwell’s dark vision of the future. Written while Orwell was dying & based on the work of the Russian author Yevgeny Zamyatin, it is a chilling depiction of how the power of the state could come to dominate the lives of individuals through cultural conditioning. To refute contradictory information, Stalin had histories rewritten to show that Lenin had favored his accession to power. He enjoyed a certain amount of hero−worship as cities were named in his honor. No Freedoms in Russia In 1921 Stalin became liaison between the Central Control Commission and the Central Committee; in this capacity he could control the purges designed to keep the party pure. He used this position to his advantage. 1984 Background Five Year Plans Syme–Winston’s friend, specialist in Newspeak, employee in the Records Department. Mr. Charrington–63−year−old shopkeeper, rents hideaway to Winston, secret member of the Thought Police. Ampleforth–a poet. Martin–O’Brien’s servant, fellow Party member. Moreover, events in Communist Russia also impacted the plot and theme of 1984. From 1922 when Lenin suffered a stroke until 1928—four years after his death—there was a power struggle between Leon Trotsky, Minister of War, and Joseph Stalin, then Secretary of the Communist party. Stalin continued to grow even more influential as a member of the Politbureau, a small group of party bosses where his function was to manage the day−to−day activities of the Communist party. Character List Tillotson–employee in the Records Department, disliked by Winston. Tom Parsons–Winston’s neighbor at Victory Mansions, devoted to the Party, arrested for “thoughtcrime.” Mrs. Parsons–Tom’s wife, about 30, looks older, possibly will be denounced by her children to the Thought Police. Communist USSR Character List Impact of 1984 Under Stalin’s dictatorship, the USSR had become a one−party state where elections were a mockery.Although all were eligible to belong to the Communist party, membership was, in fact, a privilege. The Power of Big Brother Freedom and Enslavement/Free will Appearances and Reality Loyalty and Betrayal Utopia and Anti-Utopia Patriotism Personal Rebellion The Degradation of Language The Triump of Drudgery Information Control Changes were felt in Russian society as well. Freedom to choose one’s job was non−existent; those who resisted were sent to labor camps. Stalin’s dictatorship was complete when the vast majority of unskilled workers became controlled by a minority of loyal skilled workers and bureaucrats who enjoyed certain privileges restricted from the masses. Thus, the gulf between the classes widened and a new elite was created. In 1928 began the era of the Five−Year Plans, each of which set ambitious goals for the next five years. The goals of the first Five−Year Plan were never actualized; nevertheless, the government announced that they had been realized in 1932. Immediately, another Five−Year Plan went into effect. Joseph Stalin Stalin the Main Man in Russia 1934-1936 Winston Smith–main character of the novel, 39 years old, employee at the Ministry of Truth, inquisitive, intelligent.Big Brother–supreme leader of the Party, controlling force of Oceania, never physically appears in the novel but is ever−present. From 1928 until World War II, Stalin enjoyed supreme power in Russia. Among the changes he brought to Russian life were collective agriculture, industrialization with forced labor, and the build−up of the authoritarian state combined with the annihilation of all political opposition. Themes Character List The widespread impact of 1984 is evidenced by the changes in language that it effected. Today, the word “Orwellian” refers to any regimented and dehumanized society. Words like “Newspeak,” “unperson,” “doublethink,” and “thoughtcrime” have become part of the English language. And the familiar phrase “Big Brother Is Watching You” has become synonymous with the concept of a totalitarian state. Thought Police–secret militia; Big Brother’s agents who eliminated potential rebels. O’Brien–member of the Inner Party, employee at the Ministry of Truth, Winston’s chief. Julia–Winston’s lover, 26−year−old employee at the Ministry of Truth, worker for the Junior Anti−Sex League. There were critics, however, whom Stalin eliminated during the Great Purges of 1934−1938,

1984 Background

Transcript: 1984 Background By:Grayson Callender Lifestyle of 1940's Lifestyle in 1940's The lifestyle of the 1940's were basically of fear and uncertainty pertaining to the fear of war.This fear of the future becoming worse than it already is,partially contributes to the ideas that happen in the Novel 1984. World War Two World War Two During the time of the writing of the novel the worlds second war was happening causing the population to panic and effect all types of creative avenues because of the severity of the worlds events. Subtopic 1 Subtopic 1 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2 George Orwell George Orwell George Orwell is best known for Animal Farm and 1984 which are unique ways of viewing society and its norms.He always explored the themes that would come with dystopian society and how the government controls the masses. Text Text Picture Picture Democratic Socialism vs Communism Democratic Socialism vs Communism Democratic socialism is when socialism takes on the framework of capitalism but supports them less than a communist society would.Whereas communism is where the government is completely in charge of every thing whether its economically or even socially. Themes and Legacy Themes/Legacy The themes of 1984 are those of what in Orwell's mind could possibly happen and reflect his fears at the time.A major theme of 1984 is the way the government can be detrimental instead of helpful.The legacy of the book is that it is constantly referenced in pop culture and the modern world about the similarities of the world and 1984.

1984 Background Info

Transcript: Nineteen Eighty-Four was published in 1949. This was right after World War Two and at the beginning of the Cold War. George Orwell just saw what evils a totalitarian state can do (the Nazi party) and the world was beginning to experience how terrible communism was (Stalin killed at least 9 million people before he died in 1953). These two events drastically influenced the content and purpose of this book. The content of this book portrays ‘Big Brother’ (the ruler of Oceania, which is the setting of the book) as having a ‘heavy black mustache’ (pg. 1). Joseph Stalin’ mustache looked like that too. Also, in the Soviet Union, it was a common practice to edit government officials out of pictures after they made an error and where assassinated by the communist party. The same thing happened in 1984. George Orwell saw what happened in Germany and what was happening in the Soviet Union and wrote this book as a warning of what could happen if these totalitarian governments existed in the future or continued to grow. His writing style is very precise and does not use many ‘filler words’ because that is how he wrote. In books that he wrote prior to WWII, he used the same style. So, the events surrounding Nineteen Eighty-Four did little to change his writing style. Eric Arthur Blair, aka George Orwell, was born in India in 1903. Since his parents where European, they had a high social ranking, even though they were poor. In 1911, Orwell and his family moved to England and soon after that Orwell got a scholarship to attend Eton (a highly respected boarding school). After finishing Eton Orwell decided not to attend college and instead went to Burma as assistant district superintendent in the Indian Imperial Police in 1922. As time progressed Orwell began to notice how much the Burmese were against being ruled by the British and felt ashamed that he was part of (what he considered) the problem. So, in 1928, he resigned from the imperial police. Because of the guilt he felt that his race and caste prevented him from being able to mingle with the Burmese, Orwell began to dress and live like a poor person. He went all over England and France trying to see what being poor was like. These experiences made Orwell a socialist, which greatly influenced the content of his novels. His views greatly affected his two most popular novels, Animal Farm and 1984. These novels are both very anti-totalitarianism (Orwell experienced a form of totalitarianism when he was serving in the imperial police) and warn of what happens when you only have a small ruling class. Years of very simple living probably influenced Orwells very straightforward and concise writing. George Orwells life Images 1984 Background Info Gabe Podniesinski Bibliography Context of 1984

1984 Background Information

Transcript: The Setting What Orwell Saw . . . Economic depression in the 1930s High unemployment ​​​​ Shortages of money, housing, and food ​​​​ Restrictions on daily life and rations The beginning of the Cold War Countries east of “iron curtain” were communist ​​​​ Countries west of it were protected by US Terms to Know Dystopia = a perfect society gone wrong. Orwell warns against what could happen in the future based on the atrocities and. dictators that gained power in WWII. ​​​​ The rise of totalitarian governments. ​​​​ The use of science and technology to regulate or brainwash society. ​​​​ The distortion of truth through rhetoric. The restricting of individual freedoms Genre = Dystopia Newspeak = official language of Oceania, words are condensed and simplified for communication, resulting in less thought Ingsoc = English Socialism, these principles guide the state of Oceania Doublethink = believing two contradictory ideas at the same time Telescreen = a two-way television screen Main Characters Winston Smith = the “everyman” who is a member of the Party; rewrites history, begins to rebel against the party O’Brien = a man with whom Winston feels a connection; member of “the brotherhood,” an underground rebel group Julia = a girl from Winston’s work that he becomes infatuated with London, England—aka “Airstrip One” The year 1984 (but really just sometime in the future) Government=totalitarian dictatorship ​​​​ ​​​​ ​​​​ ​​​​ Big Brother: symbol and glorified persona Inner Party: intellectuals devoted to Party Outer Party: powerless middle class The Proles: the “subhuman” workers Oceania = N. and S. America, Britain, Australia, S. Africa Eurasia = Russia, Western and Eastern Europe Eastasia = China Land up for grabs = Middle East and Northern Africa Constant fighting for control of that land 1984 by George Orwell What You Need to Know

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