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The Interpersonal Nature of Organization

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cathrina cordova

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of The Interpersonal Nature of Organization

The Interpersonal Nature of Organization
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Interpersonal relations and group processes are a pervasive part of all organizations and a vital part of all managerial activities.
2 Interpersonal relation in an organization:


- Personal and Positive
- Personal and Negative

The Interpersonal Nature of Organization
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING
Interpersonal dynamics
- Good interpersonal relations throughout an organization can be source of synergy. People who support one another and who work well together can accomplish much more than the people who do not support one another and who do not work well together.

- Conflict-people may leave an interpersonal exchange feeling angry and hostile. Understanding how and why people interact with each other is a complex process.

Outcomes of Interpersonal Behavior
Group
is defined as two or more persons who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person. If they do not interact, they are not a group.

The behavior of individuals both affects and is affected by the group. Accomplishments of groups are strongly influenced by the behavior of their individual members.

Groups also have profound effects on the behavior of their members.

The Nature of Groups
Types of Groups
Two types of groups:

- Formal groups
- Informal Groups
Formal Goups
- Are established by the organization to do it's work.
Classification of Formal Groups:
1. Command Group
- is relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationships and usually included in the Organization chart.

2. Task Group-
is relatively temporary, formal group established to do a specific task.

3. Affinity Group
- are relatively permanent collections of employees from the same level of organization.
Informal Groups
- is established by it's members.
Classification of Informal Groups:
1. Friendship Group
- is relatively permanent and informal and draws it's benefits from the social relationships among it's members.

2. Interest Group
- is relatively temporary and informal and is organized around a common activity or interest of its members.
Stages of Group development
Four-stage process
Mutual Acceptance
is characterized by members sharing information about themselves and getting to know each other
Communication and decision-making
Members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group and individual roles in group.
Motivation and productivity
members cooperate, help each other and work toward accomplishing tasks.
Control and organization
The group is mature; members work together and are flexible, adaptive, and self-correcting.
4 Main Factors that Influence Group Performance within Organizations:
(1) Composition of the Group
- Is the degree of similarity or difference among members on factors important to group’s work.

Example:
Homogeneous, Heterogenous
(2) Size of the Group-
It refers to the number of members in the group. The size of the group influences group performance. If, on account of its size, the group has more resources at its disposal, it may be able to perform many independent tasks. It may be able to generate more ideas and solutions.
4 Main Factors that Influence Group Performance within Organizations:
(3) Norms-
According to Davis (1964), a norm refers to a standard against which the appropriateness of behavior is judged. Thus, a norm determines expected behavior in a particular circumstance. A group determines its norms during the second stage of its formation and continues it till the fourth stage. Norms help in predicting other people’s behaviours and enable people to behave in an acceptable manner. Norms prevent chaos.
Functions of Norms:
(a) Norms enable group members avoid embarrassing situations.

(b) Norms help in a group’s survival by rejecting deviant behaviour that do not help in accomplishing the group’s goals.

(c) Norms signify the values that are important to the institution and provide the group with a unique identity.

(d) Norms help group members in expecting other people’s behaviour. This saves them from analyzing other people’s behaviour, attitudes or response.
(4) Cohesiveness
- t refers to a group’s commitment towards staying together resulting from the forces operating on members to do so. The forces responsible for cohesiveness are attraction to the group, motivation to stay in the group and resistance to leave the group.
INTERGROUP DYNAMICS
A groups contribution to an organization depends on its interactions with other group as well as on its own productivity.
GROUP DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATION
GROUP POLARIZATION
is the tendency for a group average post discussion attitudes to be more extreme than its average pre discussion attitude
GROUP THINK PROCESS
can occur when a highly cohesive group with a directive leader is under time pressure. It can result in a defective process and low probability of successful outcomes.
GROUP THINK
is a mode of thinking that occurs when members of a group are deeply involved in a cohesive in group and the desire for unanimity offsets then motivation to appraise alternative courses of action.
PARTICIPATION
A major issue in group decision making is the degree to which employees should participate in the process.

Early management theories advocated a clear separation between the duties of managers and workers:
• Management was to make decisions; and
• Employees were to implement them.

Other approaches have urged that employees be allowed to participate in decisions to increase their…
• Ego involvement;
• Motivation; and
• Satisfaction

Employee participation in decision-making

In tasks that require estimation, a prediction, or a judgment of accuracy, groups are typically superior to individuals simply because more people contribute to the decision-making process.
Problem Solving (Groups vs. Individuals)
Groups generally produce more and better solutions than do individuals like:
• Creates greater interest in the task.
• Heightened interest may increase the time and effort given to the task.
Resulting in...
 More ideas;
 More thorough search for solutions;
 Better evaluation of alternatives; and
 Improved decision quality.

But groups take far longer than individuals to develop solutions and make decisions. An individual or very small group may be able to accomplish some things much faster than a large, unwieldy group or organization.

On the other hand, complex problems are more appropriate for groups. Such problems can often be divided into parts and the parts assigned to individuals or small groups who bring their results back to the group for discussion and decision making.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING
Brainstorming
is a technique used in the idea-generation phase of decision making that assists in development of numerous alternative courses of action. Members present ideas and clarify them with brief explanations. The intent of brainstorming is to produce totally new ideas and solutions by stimulating the creativity of group members and encourage them to build on the contributions of others.
The Nominal Group Technique
group members follow a generate-discussion-vote cycle until they reach a decision. Whereas brainstorming is used primarily to generate alternatives, this technique may be used in other phase of decision making, such as identification of the problem and of appropriate criteria for evaluating alternatives. To use this technique…
a.
A group of individuals convenes to address an issue
b.
The issue is described to the group, and each individual writes a list of ideas (no discussion among the members is permitted)
c.
Individual members take turns reporting their ideas, one at a time, to the group
d
. After all ideas have been presented, the members may discuss them and continue to build on them or proceed to the next phase.
e.
After the discussion, members privately vote on or rank the ideas or report their preferences in some other agreed-upon way.
f.
After voting, the group may discuss the results and continue to generate and discuss ideas.

The Delphi Technique
it was originally developed by Rand Corp. as a method to systematically gather the judgments of experts for use in developing forecasts. It is designed for groups that do not meet face to face.
a.
After recruiting participants, the manager develops a questionnaire for them to complete.
b.
The manager summarizes the responses and reports back to the experts with another questionnaire.
(This cycle may be repeated as many times as necessary to generate the information the manager needs.)

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