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Copy of Emergence & Group Minds

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Tram Ho Dac

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Emergence & Group Minds

individual and collective behaviors mutate, self-organize and learn in response to changing environments
Emergence of Group Minds?
Collective Intentionality
Attributed to individuals or groups?
I-Intention
process in which the lived bodies of the group members participants extend and form a common intercorporality
Participatory
Sense-Making
in the dynamical process of interaction and coordination of two embodied agents meaning is transformed and generated
we-intention is a primitive phenomenon;
not reducible
to a set of I-intentions
Genuine Group Intention
"we"refers to a
plural subject
of a goal
Social Interaction
dynamical process of coupling and
coordination
of two embodied agents, who in turn regulate (sustain or modify) their coupling over time
Collective Affectivity
Attributed to individuals or groups?
Collective Agency
Attributed to individuals or groups?
Sense-Making
Complex
Adaptive
Systems
We-Intention
Increasing Degree of Emergence
Increasing Degree of Emergence
Individual Emotion
strong intuition:
Individualism
about feelings (exclusive first-person access)
Genuine Group Emotion
example: grief of parents
Shared Emotion
Group Action
Shared Action
second-person constitution of intersubjectivity
"Social interaction is the regulated coupling between at least two autonomous agents, where the regulation is aimed at aspects of the coupling itself so that it constitutes an
emergent autonomous organization
in the domain of relational dynamics, without destroying in the process the autonomy of the agents involved (though the latter’s scope can be augmented or reduced)." ([10], p. 39)
Searle
indistinguishable sets of coordinated bodily movements may imply a set of
individual actions
or a
collective action
e.g. rain shelter
e.g. choreography
we-intentions imply cooperation, but are still localized in the individuals
Gilbert
no reference to individual goals is necessary
example: walking together
obligations and entitlements are the result of conditional commitment
collective intentions are attributed to a plural subject, not to individuals
problem example: business school graduates
Searle
Tuomela & Miller
3 criteria for having "we"-intentions
A intends to do his part of X
A beliefs that the preconditions of success obtain
A believes that there is a mutual belief among the group members w.r.t. to these preconditions
we-intentions cannot be analyzed as
set of
I-intentions + belief
example: I am happy
emotions are not shared, especially the phenomenality of emotions is subjective
emotional episodes are attributed to the individual subject
only individuals can have emotions
the same type of shared emotion is instantiated in different individual tokens
Scheler
example: symphony orchestra
numerically one feeling is shared
Schmid
feeling has individually different aspects
feeling together
: one feeling is shared
collectively
shared

emotions
are instantiated by a set of individual emotions
emotions in this case are not reducible to any individual member
Schmitz
example: atmospheric feeling
emotions are not personal, but identified with
superpersonal atmospheres
Vertical
Condition
Broad Emergence
set of individual actions
of a plural agent
commitment
R(A,B,C)
A,B,C
social interaction is more than the sum of individual actions
candidates: social cognition, intersubjectivity,
collective affective intentionality etc.
Can sense-making account for the intentional, affective and agency dimensions of human being?
Social Cognition
cognitive ability to understand another person's emotions, desires, intentions, thoughts etc.
aim:
individual agents and social interactions are autonomous
=
integrate individual cognition and
interaction processes
in an explanation of social understanding
Background Debate
autonomy
sense-making
coordination
each individual remains autonomous in a social encounter + interaction is autonomous
dynamical co-regulated coupling between two agents evolves during the interaction
engagement in participatory sense-making through active interaction
phenomenological aspect of social interaction
lived bodies enter a mutual incorporation
=
“intersubjectivity [...] means entering a process of embodied interaction and generating common meaning [participatory sense-making] through it.” ([12],465)
[1}

[2}

[3}

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9] Thompson, E., & Stapleton, M. (2008). Making Sense of Sense-Making: Reflections on Enactive and Extended Mind Theories. Topoi, 28(1), 23–30. doi:10.1007/s11245-008-9043-2

[10] De Jaegher, H., & Di Paolo, E. (2008). Making sense in participation: An enactive approach to social cognition. EMERGING COMMUNICATION, 10, 33–14.

[11] Jaegher, H., & Paolo, E. (2007). Participatory sense-making. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. doi:10.1007/s11097-007-9076-9

[12] Fuchs, T., & Jaegher, H. (2009). Enactive intersubjectivity: Participatory sense-making and mutual incorporation. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 8(4), 465–486. doi:10.1007/s11097-009-9136-4

[13]
Literature
Armin Egger
Imke Biermann
Ngan-Tram Ho Dac

seminar: Emergence
University of Osnabrueck
June 18th 2013

Definition
is the active engagement of a living being in the creation and appreciation of meaning
(due to its autonomous nature);
it is at the heart of what it is to be cognitive
Mutual Incorporation
=
modified sense-making
joint/shared sense-making
coupling and coordination
Social Interaction
dynamic network of
interacting elements
"The interaction process emerges as an entity when social encounters acquire this operationally closed organization. It constitutes a level of analysis not reducible, in general, to individual behaviours." [11],p.8
=
individual
actions
relational
dynamics
interaction
is extended over time
autonomy
:
individual sense-making can be coordinated in social encounters
as a structured process of sensorimotor coordination
as a structuring process for individual actions
of the interaction as self-sustaining dynamics
of the individuals as interacting agents
Horizontal
Condition
Increasing Degree of Emergence
"self-sustaining interaction patterns that go beyond the behavioral capacities of isolated individuals by modulating their intra-bodily conditions of behavior generation" [1], p.1
References



[1] Froese, T., & Fuchs, T. (2012). The extended body: a case study in the neurophenomenology of social interaction. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 205–235. doi:10.1007/s11097-012-9254-2

[2] Fuchs, T., De Jaegher, H. (2009). Enactive intersubjectivity: Participatory sense-making and mutual incorporation. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 8, 465-486. doi: 10.1007 s11097-009-9136-4

[3] Gallagher, S. (2008). Philosophical Antecedents of Situated Cognition. In: Robbins, P. and Aydede,
M. (eds): Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[4] Kompridis, N. (2009). Technology's Challenge to Democracy: What of the human? Parrhesia(8), 20-33.

[5] Taylor, C. (2005). Merleau-Ponty and the Epistemological Picture. In: Carman, T. & Hanse, M. (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Merleau-Ponty. Cambridge University Press.

[6] Buber, M. (1973). Das dialogische Prinzip. Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider Verlag.
Emergence - of
what
?

Interaction Process
Experience of
Intercorporeality

is a
recursive coupling
of two agent's actions
in it activities become intertwined and
mutually modify
each other
can take on an
autonomous organization
as it gains its own dynamics and internal structure over time
Armin Egger
Imke Biermann
Ngan-Tram Ho Dac

Seminar: Emergence
University of Osnabrueck
June 18th 2013

Emergence & Group Minds
Central Theme
challenge the
"methodological individualist"
or "methodological solipsist" approach to cognition and agency
instead stress
embodiment
and
embeddedness
of agency and cognition; human being is being-in-the-world
focus:
interactive
and
intersubjective
nature of human action and experience
Summary & Conclusion
Instead of assuming an individualistic mind from the start which confronts us with the
alleged dichotomy
of having to choose between considering a group mind
1. as a linear sum of individual minds
–> but there seems to be something
over and above
?
2. as a mind of a genuine new plural subject
–> but what should this new metaphysical entity be?

emerging interaction process gives us an alternative
mental states and actions ascribed to the individual, but coordinated in interaction, which gives raise to the emergence of new
meaning
the mind is not individual in the first place, but always constituted through the
bodily interaction
with a physical and social world
Old Problem
New Approach
Take-home Message
interaction
mutual incorporation
no detached minds and bodies that are aggregated, but the idea that via processes of embodied interaction common meaning is generated
Intersubjectivity
'dynamical agentive systems approach to intersubjectivity'
no passive understanding of others (like in simulation-theory or theory-theory) but "as an ongoing, dynamical process of participatory sense-making and mutual incorporation" [2], p. 465
Lived body as the locus through which understanding is possible
Pre-reflective know-how that attunes us to the world and others
Intercorporeality
Lived body
our understanding of others as embodied beings is mediated via our
lived body

Our sense-making capacities and our capacities for learning arise from the conditions of our embodiment[4]
Lived body discloses environment as space of possible engagement
Understanding
Intercorporeality explains how we come to recognize others as
persons
, rather than things
Understanding the other as a person means understanding the other as a "thou" instead of "it" [6]
Emergence of
meaning
!

"Späre des Zwischenmenschlichen" as the actual event between person
Interpersonal phenomena can't be explained by referring to the individuals, examlpe: Conversation
"Dennoch ist dies nur die
heimliche Begleitung zu dem Gespräch
selber, einem sinngeladenen phonetischen
Ereignis, dessen
Sinn
weder in einem der
beiden Partner noch in beiden zusammen
sich findet, sondern nur in diesem
ihrem
leibhaften Zusammenspiel
, diesem
ihrem
Zwischen
"
[6], p. 276

motor intentionality
: the body's response to the affordances and solicitations of the situation
Understanding is in interaction
lived bodies of the interactors extend and enter a mutual incorporation
in intercorporeality, motor intentionality is shifted to the interaction of two persons
necessary for that: to have a
relationship
instead of a mere collective ("personale Vergegenwärtigung" [6])
Meaning!
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