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Copy of Globalization
Transcript of Copy of Globalization
World Without Walls
"Globalization speaks to the modern phenomenon of an incredibly shrinking world where powerful cultural, economic, political, and technological forces ignore national and cultural boundaries. Events in one part of the world ripple through the whole" (Mazurek & Winzer, 2006, p. 19).
Leadership in a Globally Complex World
The wealthy tourists taking package holidays
The business people with investments in several countries
The refugees, asylum seekers, and economic migrants
And globalization, finally, is apparent in the
increasing mobility of people across borders:
Globalization is manifested in the development of supranational federations (e.g., the European Union) and the regionalization of countries (e.g., the United Kingdom).
Forces of Globalization
"the expansion of international trade, investment, production and financial flows, the growing significance of regional trading blocs and trade agreements,more influential roles for international financial institutions and transnational corporations, far greater mobility of capital - particularly financial capital" (Priestly, 2002, p. 126)
Simply put: Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology, and capital. (Wikipedia – Economic globalization)
Neo-liberalism: focus on market and private sector - free trade, privatization
"The undoubted economic pressures wrought by globalization ... have led to ... increased pressures to adopt neo-liberal cost-cutting measures" (Priestly, 2002, p. 128).
Neo-conservatism: maintenance of national sovereignty - preserve or restore what is established and traditional, "...a creature of the radical right that is not conservative or moderate" (Drury, 2011)
"...forces of neo-conservatism have struggled to maintain national sovereignty" (Priestly, 2002, p. 129).
Marketization: privately funded social services - health care, education
"An educational agenda that heralds choice in a competitive marketplace has the possibility of ensuring that the most wealthy can meet their wants and desires while the least advantaged struggle with their needs" (Dei & Karumanchery, 1999, p. 125)
Global citizenship is an umbrella term for the social, political, environmental, or economic actions of globally-minded individuals and communities on a worldwide scale. The term can refer to the belief that, rather than actors affecting isolated societies, individuals are members of multiple, diverse, local and non-local networks. Global citizenship is an interdisciplinary lens through which to analyze the history and development of our changing world.
3) Other Forces
--rapid advancements of knowledge across space, time and peoples: world wide web, information available online, instant access across the globe, virtual meetings, iphones/ipads (apps), online banking/shopping, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Goole Earth, epals
"education plays an important role in national progress and globalization (Kubow & Fossum, 2007, p. 6)
"the forces affecting education - forces that education, in turn, affects - can be divided into the political, economic, sociocultural, and technological dimensions" (Kubow & Fussum, p. 6)
"Institutions that can respond to the forces of globalization, while at the same time respecting the diversities of cultures and belief systems are most likely to have a long half-life" (Gardner, 2004, p. 256)
San Jose State University's Mission (excerpt):
For both undergraduate and graduate students, the university emphasizes the following goals:
In-depth knowledge of a major field of study.
Broad understanding of the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and the arts.
Skills in communication and in critical inquiry.
Multi-cultural and global perspectives gained through intellectual and social exchange with people of diverse economic and ethnic backgrounds.
Active participation in professional, artistic, and ethnic communities.
Responsible citizenship and an understanding of ethical choices inherent in human development.
"We should acknowledge our interdependent global needs and responsibilities" (O'Sullivan, 1999, p. 311). This includes an awareness of economic, technological, ecological, political, cultural, ecology and humanitarian concerns (p. 317).
Globalization is evident in the rise of
Mobility of capital through global currency markets
The development of economic bodies (International Monetary Fund and the World Bank)
It has been realized in the development of
Internationalized forms of communication
Satellite television (which allow for greater levels of intercultural dialogue, while also facilitating the spread of mass-mediated forms of entertainment that have been accused of causing cultural homogenization)
--greater disparity between haves and have-nots within and across countries
--increased job opportunities
--improved economic conditions
--worsened economic conditions in marginalized countries
--lower cost of goods
--more efficient use of resources
--cultural homogenization and monoculture
--increased cultural exposure and understanding
Impact of Globalization
There is an emphasis on well-educated population. "Knowledge has become the competitive asset and advantage of industrial nations in the global economy" (O'Sullivan, 1999, p. 311)
We share "many interdependent global problems and responsibilities" (O'Sullivan, 199, p. 312).
Global social influences include: social justice, peace, human rights
local traditions and influences merge with global trends through a process of 'glocalization'. This produces "hybrid education systems that retain many distinctive features" (Priestly, 2002, p. 122)
"Policy migration" between nations and states have impacted educational curriculum within local as well as global educational institutions.
--the opportunity for cross-border education
--broadens one's global perspective
--experience a different culture
--learn a language
1991: Government of Canada discussed the notion of "establishing Canada-Wide goals for education and training" for all education across the board from Kindergarten on through the colleges and universities. (p. 316)
1993: Council of Ministers of Education of Canada - set up the School Achievement Indicators program (SAIP) which assessed students on a national level for math (1993 & 1997, science (1996) & literacy (1996 & 1998). (p. 318)
The Alberta Social Studies Kindergarten to Grade 12 Program of Studies focus on concepts of:
---citizenship and identity in the Canadian context,
---responsible citizenship, --- pluralism
---bilingual, --- multiculturalism
The new Alberta Social Studies program of studies have made efforts to reflect the social fabric of Canada and globalization.
Central to the vision of the Alberta social studies program is the recognition of the diversity of experiences and perspectives and the pluralistic nature of Canadian society.
Preparing the workforce
Effects of globalization calls for "new educational demands of the workforce" (O'Sullivan, 1999, p. 315)
Recommended skills and attitudes of future graduates:
--culturally literate & interaction
--cooperation & interpersonal
--foreign language proficiency
Time to reflect
Today we are in a period of rapid globalization and it is increasing worldwide.
What will be effective skills for the 21st century teachers?
Students should learn how they are connected to others in the world socially, politically, economically and environmentally in all subject areas and at all grade levels. Knowledge, skills and attitudes will further develop in learning about:
What will global learning look like in your classroom?
What should a 21st century Canadian or provincial curriculum look like?
"The globalization of economic life, and more particularly of communication, information and technology, all pose enormous challenges to the existing modes of control and operation of nation-states. In this sense, the pursuance of new centralized national curriculum might be seen more as a response of the more economically endangered nations" (Goodson, 1990, in Priestly, p.131).
Teaching, in comparison to the industry world, has been restructured to accommodate global pressures, including training initiatives, curriculum structure, performance criteria. (Priestly, p. 132)
"Centralism has emerged ... a consequence of seemingly contradictory internal pressures which can be linked to globalization" (Priestly, 2002, p. 133).
Globalization is not a neutral force; for some there are benefits to appreciate while for others it is not as desirable.
"reaction against: the nation-building attempts of the architects of national curricula" (Priestly, 2002, p. 135).
"response to: the tendencies towards using schools to solve the economic problems of the nation" (Priestly, 2002, p. 135).
-increased environmental damage, terrorism, illegal drug sales, widespread of diseases
-less cultural diversity
-instability in developing countries
Alberta Government. (2005). Social studies, programs of study. Retrieved from Alberta
Burbules, N. C. & Torres, C. A. (2000). Globalization and education: An introduction. Retrieved from
Chomsky, N. (2008). Discussing globalization [Video file]. Retrieved from
Did You Know 3.0 [Video file]. (2012). Retrieved from
Drury, S.B. (2011). The Rise of Neoconservatism in Canada. Retrieved from
Gardner, H. (2004). How education changes: considerations of history, science, and values. In Suárez-
Orozco, M. M., & Qin-Hilliard, D. (2004). Globalization: Culture and Education in the New Millennium. University of California Press. (pp 235-258).
Kubow, P. K., & Fossum, P. R. (2007). Comparative education: exploring issues in international context.
(2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Las Americas Films. (2007). Granito de arena [Video file]. Retrieved from
Mazurek, K., & Winzer, M. A. (2006). Schooling around the world: debates, challenges, and practices.
Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
McLachlan, S. (2006). World on Fire [Video file]. Retrieved from
O'Sullivan, Brian. (1999). Global change and educational reform in Ontario and Canada. Canadian Journal of Education, 24(3), 3l1-325. Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://www.csse-scee.ca/CJE/Articles/CJE24-3.htm
Priestley, M. (2002). Global discourses and national reconstruction: The impact of globalization on curriculum policy. Curriculum Journal, 13(1), 121–138. Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6809605&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Resources for Teachers
ePals Global Community - http://www.epals.com/
ePals “Hi Around the World” (2011) - http://www.epals.com/media/p/290870.aspx
Global Dimension (2013) - http://globaldimension.org.uk/
Global Policy Forum (GPF) - http://www.globalpolicy.org/home.html
Global Teacher Project (2005) - http://www.globalteacher.org.uk/global_ed.htm
Globalization 101 - www.globalization101.org
Globalization Checklist (2003) - http://www.globaled.org/fianlcopy.pdf
Globalization Games - http://www.games4geog.com/globalisation.html
Globalization Teaching & Curriculum - http://globalizationteachingcurriculum.blogspot.com/
Global Impact of Social Media
The educational landscape is changing because the world in which education is situated is itself changing" (Kudow & Fossum, 2007, p. 283).
Games to try - (optional and just for fun):
Eyre, L. (2002). "No strings attached"?: Corporate involvement in curriculum. Canadian Journal of Education, 27(1), 61-80. Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://www.csse-scee.ca/CJE/Articles/CJE27-1.htm
McIntosh, P. (2013). Gender perspectives on educating for global citizenship. In D. J. Flinders & S. J. Thornton (Eds.), The curriculum studies reader (4th ed., pp. 339-352). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Moroye, C.M. (2013). Complementary curriculum: The work of ecologically minded teachers. In D. J.
Flinders & S. J. Thornton (Eds.), The curriculum studies reader (4th ed., pp. 379-398). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Sefa Dei, G. J., & Karumanchery, Leeno L. (1999). School reforms in Ontario: The
marketization of education and the resulting silence on equity. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 45(2), 111-131.
Smith, D. G. (1999). Globalization and Education: Prospects for Postcolonial Pedagogy In a Hermeneutic Mode. Interchange, 30(1), 1–10. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1007514907813?LI=true#page-1
April 18, 2013
San Jose State University
-globalization represents increased freedom
-higher standard of living and life expectancy
-better access to medicine, education and technology
"The connectedness of national achievement to global economic competitiveness continues to be an important priority for the Council of Miinisters of Education of Canada (CMEC) in Canada's national education debates".
Resources for teachers continued...
EARN - http://www.iearn.org/
Media that Matters - http://www.mediathatmattersfest.org/
National Geographic Education - http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/globalization/?ar_a=1
Songs on: Globalization, Economic Justice & Human dignity - http://www.brophyprep.org/summit/globalization/resources/playlist/
Teaching with Technology - http://www.mrkent.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=57&Itemid=74
The World Bank - http://www.worldbank.org/
Wide Angle: Human Stories, Global Issues (2007) - http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/previous_seasons/classroom/index.html
Wordle: Beautiful Word Clouds - http://www.wordle.net/
Globalization As We Know It:
Break off into groups and discuss the following:
- What is Globalization or what do you think it is?
- What does it mean to be a Global Citizen?
- Why do you think many Higher Education institutions are placing a strong emphasis on Globally-Focused Education?
Did you know - 2011