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AP Psychology 99'

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by

Annabelle Liz

on 16 April 2015

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Transcript of AP Psychology 99'

Part B: Biological implications
AP Psychology 99'
Part A: Brain structure
Imbalance in brain chemistry & lesions in the brain (namely the
hypothalamus
) can result in abnormal eating habits, including obesity, anorexia, & bulimia. Since the
hypothalamus
is the hunger center of the brain, it influences how often an individual eats. Any damage to this crucial structure usually results in unhealthy eating habits.
Part B: Learning implications
When planning a diet, or working on weight management, one must realize that
cultural factors
work against them. An individual should establish weight goals that maximize efficiency, health, & happiness; not what T.V. feels is attractive.
Part A: Modeling
Children also tend to eat what
role models
eat. What parents, friends, & T.V. commercials model will be what an individual will tend to eat. For instance, a person reads that a model eats only salads and does the same, this is an example of a
positive model
. Whereas, a child sees her father eating cheeseburgers and adopts this eating habit, is an example of a
negative model
.
Part A: Body or Brain Chemistry
An Individuals
body & brain chemistry
creates a predisposition to a certain level of body fat. Low glucose levels in the body also signal an individual that energy consumption is necessary. Individuals with diabetes, who have hyper insulin levels, are much more careful in maintaining healthy eating habits & a constant body weight.
Part A: Genetics
Genetics also play an important role in determining eating habits & body weight. For instance, the "Paleolithic Prescription" is a theory that explains why humans are predisposition to eat sugars & fats (because sugar is easily processed into energy & fats are easily stored). Back in the Paleolithic age, sugars & fats were scarce, now they are abundant. Modern humans still have the same general genetic make-up as the paleolithic man & still tend to eat as much sugar & fat as possible. Obesity is also hereditary.
Heredity
is important in determining eating habits & body weight. Set points are genetically determined & usually passed from parent to offspring. Other diseases, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, etc.,that tend to be
hereditary
dramatically affect eating habits. People with heart disease, for example, will consume less cholesterol & fat than healthy individuals in order to reduce their risk of heart failure.
Part A: Cultural factors
Cultural factors
also impacts an individuals eating habits & body weight. American society, for example promotes the consumption of fatty foods & the maintenance of low body weight. For instance, maintaining a thin body is ideal in America, which encourages people into bad diets and eating habits. This paradoxical, and oxymoron belief system results in many unhealthy eating patterns & illnesses such as anorexia & bulimia.
Part A: Reinforcement
Learning mechanisms also affect an individuals eating habits & body weight. Certain foods taste better than others, this
positive reinforcement
will incline individuals to choose better tasting foods over not-so-good tasting foods, even if the not-so-good tasting foods are healthier. Children are also taught what foods are appropriate at certain times. Scolding a child for eating between meal snacks & punishing the consumption of candy will result in a regular, 3-meal-a-day eating habit & a moderate-to-low level of empty calorie consumption.
By knowing one's
genetic
make-up & history, an individual can weight manage accordingly. Individuals with a family history of obesity should consume little-to-no fats & minimal sugars while increasing fruits & vegetable intake. Individuals with high metabolism rates can eat more fats & sugars with less concern, but should try to eat more proteins than anything else.
By: Annabelle Liz
Full transcript