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The Crusades

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Clarissa Gurnow

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of The Crusades

By:Clarissa Gurnow
5th hour The Crusades (1095-1291) What were the Crusades? My Opinion of this article The Crusades were a series of military expeditions during the later Middle Ages fought against the Muslims of the Middle East. In the year of 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem, the Holy Land, and the Christians wanted it back because it was the most holy place for Christians.
At the same time however Jerusalem was also an important place for the Muslims. This led to the Christians fighting to get Jerusalem back while the Muslims fought to keep it. Timeline of the Crusades The beginning of the First Crusade In 1097, a Crusader army of 43,000 strong attacked Nicea and it surrendered to the control of the Byzantine emperor. The Crusaders forged ahead and in June of 1099 they arrived in Jerusalem. At this time a Crusader army of 15,000 was led by Godfrey of Bouillon and Robert Duke of Normandy.
After a five-week siege, the Crusaders fell short of just about everything they needed to be successful and they suffered. Soon supplies such as wood arrived and huge engines were built including portable towers and catapults.
On July 13, 1099, a great assault began and after two days of furious fighting Godfrey pierced one of the walls of Jerusalem and his army burst in. Jerusalem now belonged to the Crusaders.
The Crusaders rummaged through everything of value in the city, and Godfrey was elected ruler of Jerusalem until his death a year later. Pope Urban II sadly died in July of 1099 and never heard of the Crusaders victory. The First Crusade (1095-1099) I believe that this article was a true representation of the Crusades. In class we only learned about the First Crusade, the Second Crusade, the Third Crusade, the Fourth Crusade, and the Children's Crusade. We also learned about the causes and results of the crusades, but we never learned about all ten of the crusades mentioned in the article. This article provided me with more information about the crusades and gave me an in depth description of each crusade. I think that this article was an interesting read and really helped me gain more background information on the topic. The article was organized in an appropriate way making it easy to know which crusade happened when. Overall, I believe this article was well written and informative. The Second Crusade (1145-1148) On December 24, 1144 the Turks seized the city of Edessa and murdered all the inhabitants.

In 1145, Pope Eugenius III issued a call authorizing a new Crusade and then Bernard of Clairvaux began preaching in favor of this new crusade. Soon 50,000 volunteers responded and the Second Crusade was on.

The two most significant military leaders of the Second Crusade were Louis VI of France and Conrad III of Germany. Despite these two kings hating each other, they united to try and take Damascus from the Muslim power. The First Crusade 1095-1099 1187-1192 The Second Crusade The Third Crusade 1145-1148 1202-1204 The Albigensian Crusade The Eighth Crusade 1267-1272 1212-1213 1228-1229 1209-1229 1217-1221 1248-1250 The Fourth Crusade The Children's Crusade The Sixth Crusade The Seventh Crusade The Fifth Crusade In November of 1095, Pope Urban II gave a public speech calling on Western Christians to give aid to their Eastern Christian brethren who were under attack from the Seljuk Turks. He also called for the liberation of Jerusalem which had been under Muslim control for 400 years.
Many vowed to "take up the cross" on the spot, and had pieces of red cloth pinned to their shirts in the shape of the cross.
Urban II set August 15, 1096 as the official date for the beginning of the Crusade. This was when the crusader army left for the Holy Lands. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) This was easily the most shameful of all the Crusades, this Crusade ended with no gains in the Holy Lands. It did capture a small Greek town on the Adriatic Sea and twice sacked Constantinople though. The Children's Crusade (1212-1213) This was one of the most tragic events of the Crusades. In 1212, thousands of children ages ten to eighteen left for the Holy Lands in order to recapture Jerusalem. The children were accompanied by lesser nobles and clergy.
Most of the crusaders never reached the Holy Lands because many of them died while crossing the Alps. Others were captured and sold as slaves.
Sadly, few of the crusaders ever returned home. The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229) The Seventh Crusade (1248-1250) The Last two Crusades were led by Louis IX, who was later known as Saint Louis.
In 1249, Louis IX led his forces to Damietta, Egypt which was the port of Nile. Similar to the Fifth Crusade, the Crusader armies captured the port, and then moved into Egypt.
In 1250, after initial successes, Louis IX along with his forces were defeated at the Battle of Mansourah, and surrendered.
While most of the Crusader armies returned home, Louis stayed in the Holy Lands for four more years to help rebuild Christian fortresses in Syria. The Eighth Crusade (1267-1272) In 1260, a new Muslim power arose in Egypt when the Turkish bodyguards of the sultan revolted and gained power. By 1268, a new sultan, Baibars, captured Antioch and Jaffa. This man was known for the mass slaughter of the people of the towns he captured for selling the captured women into slavery.
Louis IX once again gathered an army to try to recapture the lost parts of the Holy Lands. His army was sidetracked into the Tunis in 1270, and never reached the Holy Lands. Louis had heard a false report that the Muslim leader was willing to convert to Christianity if the Crusading army would help protect him.
The army was trapped in Carthage and was soon overcome by disease. In August 1270, Louis IX died. In the 1170s, the greatest foe of the Crusaders, Saladin, was gaining power in Egypt. In July of 1187, Saladin defeated the Crusader armies at the Battle of Hattin. The Knights Templar faced hard losses in this battle and Saladin seized Jerusalem. In two years, Saladin over took fifty crusader castles.
Pope Gregory VII issued appeals for help and three famous Christian men of the Crusades responded to it. The Crusade was off to a bad start when one of these men drowned in the river on the way to the Holy Land.
One of the men, Richard, signed a three- year truce with Saladin and started back for England then later died in battle.
The Third Crusade was the first significant gain of territory by the Christian Crusaders in 100 years. The Third Crusade (1187-1192) It has been argued that the Sixth Crusade was the most successful, but it was definitely the most unusual.
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was the leader at the time and had originally planned on being a part of the Fifth Crusade. He backed out of this because of an illness though. When he failed to live up to his obligations Frederick II was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX in 1227.
Although he was excommunicated he sailed to the Holy Lands with a crusader army in 1228. Rather than fighting with the Muslims he made treaty negotiations with the Sultan of Egypt. Surprisingly he was granted Jerusalem, Jaffa, Bethlehem, and Nazareth.
On March 17, 1229, Frederick II marched into Jerusalem, and claimed the title of King of Jerusalem.
Until 1244, the Crusaders kept hold of Jerusalem. At this time they were ejected by a group of Khwarazmian Turks, and the Crusaders would never again retake Jerusalem. The Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) The Albigensian Crusade lasted for 20 years and started because after the unfortunate Fourth Crusade other branches of Christianity evolved. The Catholic Church considered the Cathar's heretics and dealt with them viciously. The burning of the Cathars was carried out during this Crusade on a large scale.
400 were burnt in 1211, 94 burnt after the fall of Casses.
Pope Gregory IX instituted the Papal Inquisition in 1227 and that lasted three years. Pope Innocent III had called for a new crusade in 1215, but his death in 1216 put things on hold. Pope Honorius III then called for a new crusade in 1217.
The goal of the Fifth Crusade was to attack Muslim power centers in Egypt and eventually reclaim Jerusalem. Three-hundred German ships took the Crusaders to the Holy Lands in 1218, and the Crusaders captured an Egyptian port in the mouth of the Nile.
The crusaders failed when Sultan flooded the low-lying lands of the Nile with his troops. After this the Crusader army retreated shortly after the Muslims won. http://www.champaignschools.org/staffwebsites/cainza/crusadesworksheet.pdf Article:
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