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Core Practice Three

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Tonja Byrom

on 10 February 2018

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Transcript of Core Practice Three

Language teachers can design and carry out interactive reading and listening comprehension tasks using authentic cultural texts of various kinds with appropriate scaffolding and follow-up tasks that promote interpretation and discussion.
Deconstructing Core Practice (HLTP) #3:
Guiding Learners to Interpret and Discuss Authentic Texts
In this presentation, we will focus on deconstructing this practice by learning about and/or analyzing the following:
the nature of the interpretive mode of communication
the traditional "look-back-and-lift-off" approach
the constructivist view of the interpretive process
research-based principles of interpretation
selecting authentic resources
guiding learners through an authentic resource
the interactive model for developing interpretive communication
Let’s examine today's view of the interpretive process, which is constructivist in nature.
The Constructivist View of the Interpretive Process
Listeners read and interact with the text and their background knowledge to construct meaning (Nassaji, 2007)
This is not accomplished through translation!
The reading process is a "juggling or switching process" in which certain "knowledge sources assist to take over for other knowledge sources that are inadequate or nonexistent" - both top-down and bottom-up (Bernhardt, 2005).
Interpretation does not develop in a linear manner as so speaking and writing.
Interpretation is a social process.
Keeping in mind the constructivist view of the interpretive process, let’s examine some guiding principles regarding the interpretive mode.
Research-Based Principles of Interpretation
Both literal and interpretive comprehension skills should be developed

Even novices can engage in interpretive (inferencing) tasks

Learners should be given opportunities to collaborate in order to make meaning with a text

Research shows that learners do better when L1 is used (Godev, Martinez-Gibson, & Toris, 2002)

We should give students the opportunity to select their own authentic texts and to interpret them (Adair-Hauck, Glisan, & Troyan (2013). Implementing Integrated Performance Assessment, Alexandria, VA: ACTFL)
The Interactive Model for
Developing Interpretive Communication
Points to Remember
Core Practice Three
Deconstructing Core Practices in Language Education
Guiding Learners through an Authentic Resource
We should do our best to present texts that are authentic in nature. This is easier said than done, but using authentic materials as much as possible must be our goal as language teachers.
Using Authentic Materials

Authentic materials are “texts written by members of a language and culture group for members of the same language and culture group" (Galloway, 1998, p. 133).

Present real language

Integrate authentic culture

Stimulate interest in language learning

Research also demonstrates that learners learn at higher levels from texts that are unedited and authentic as opposed to more simplified forms (Vigil, 1987; Young, 1993, 1999)

What is interpretive communication?
receptive communication
clarification is not possible
creator of the communication is absent
literal comprehension and interpretation of the message
listening, reading, and viewing
The Nature of the Interpretive Mode of Communication
Look Back and Lift Off

readers do not need to understand the reading in order to answer the questions correctly

readers only need to match the language of the questions to language in the reading
Core Practice 3: Guiding Learners to Interpret and Discuss Authentic Texts:
Language teachers can design and carry out interactive reading and listening comprehension tasks using authentic cultural texts of various kinds with appropriate scaffolding and follow-up tasks that promote interpretation and discussion.

At this point, please take out your study guide and answer the two previewing questions before you move on.
Study Guide Activity
Source: Inglés 2o. Carrasco, L., & Radley, M. D. Madrid: Ediciones Anaya.
Read Engineers' Problems
Answer the comprehension questions at the bottom
Explore the first set of questions (#1) in the study guide in the section titled
during viewing
Interpretation as a Concept
Interpretation goes beyond just comprehension
Includes cultural perspectives, opinions, and points of view
Based on one's ability to make inferences
"A thinking process that involves reasoning beyond the text using generalization, synthesis, and/or explanation" (Hammadou, 2002, p. 219)
Often referred to as "reading between the lines"
Lee, J. F., & VanPatten, B. (1995). Making communicative language teaching happen (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Authentic Materials
Importance of the task -
Edit the task, not the text!
Phases of Interpretation
In the preparation phase, we do the following:
Look at the title and visuals in the text. What mode of transportation is being discussed?
What experiences do you have using this mode of transportation?
Why might you want to read this article?
What vocabulary and expressions in Spanish do you expect to read?

The Preparation Phase
Now skim the article for a minute or two. Using the information from the article, describe in English the main purpose of the web page.

Identify 8 words in the text that relate to the metro system.

The Comprehension Phase:
Identifying the Main Idea
In this reading, students could be asked to find:
The place where one can purchase a metro ticket
How the metro lines are marked to help you find your way
The price of tickets for children
The hours the subway is open
The Comprehension Phase:
Scanning for Details
Use the context to guess the meaning of the following in English:
Desplazarse (1st paragraph)
¿Quieres ver el plano? (3rd paragraph)
Es bastante sencillo. (5th paragraph)

The Interpretation/Discussion Phase: Guess Meaning from Context
Read/Listen/View between the lines (i.e. make inferences) to discuss the following questions in Spanish using information from the text.
The Interpretation/Discussion Phase:
Making Inferences
1. ¿Por qué dice el autor: “Las líneas del Metro de Madrid crecen casi cada año y disponemos ya de una de las mejores redes de toda Europa”?

[Why do you think the author states….]
2. ¿Por qué piensas que sea importante que los estudiantes estadounidenses conozcan sobre el Metro de Madrid antes de viajar a esta famosa ciudad? Use información del texto para apoyar tus ideas.

[Why do you think that it is important for students to have an understanding of Madrid’s Metro before travelling to this famous city? Use information from the text to support your ideas.]
The Creativity/Interpersonal Phase
Option 1: Students discuss the information they have read, viewed, or listened to with someone else in order to plan for travel around Madrid.

Option 2: Students participate in a role play where they interact with others to obtain information related to using the metro.

The Creativity/Presentational Phase
Create a brochure about how to navigate the Madrid metro using information from the text.
Find additional information from other internet sources. Use visuals to support your message.
You will share this brochure with your classmates to help them prepare for their trip to Madrid.
Use 5 new words or expressions that you learned in the text.
You should have a classmate read your first draft and react to it in terms of content and accuracy.

The Extension Phase
You will now hear a public service announcement about using the metro in Madrid.
What information did you hear that you also read about in the text?
What additional information did you hear in this announcement?
Adair-Hauck, Glisan, & Troyan (2013).
Implementing Integrated Performance Assessment,
Alexandria, VA: ACTFL.
Bernhardt, E. (2005). Progress and procrastination in second language reading.
Annual review of applied linguistics
, 25, 133-150.
Galloway, V. (1998). Constructing cultural realities:“Facts” and frameworks of association.
The coming of age of the profession
, 129-140.
Glisan, Eileen (2015). ACTFL Core Practices for Effective Language Learning Webinar Series. Retrieved from https://www.actfl.org/assessment-professional-development/language-educators%E2%80%99-learning-portal
Godev, C. B., Martínez‐Gibson, E. A., & Toris, C. (2002). Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Test: L1 versus L2 in Open‐Ended Questions.
Foreign Language Annals
, 35(2), 202-221.
Hammadou Sullivan, J. (2002). Advanced second language reader’s inferencing.
Literacy and the second language learner
, 1.
Lee, J. F., & VanPatten, B. (19950.
Making communicative language teaching happen
(2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nassaji, H. (2007). Schema theory and knowledge‐based processes in second language reading comprehension: A need for alternative perspectives.
Language Learning
, 57(s1), 79-113.
Vigil, V. D. (1987).
Authentic text in the college-level Spanish I class as the primary vehicle of instruction
Young, D. N. (1999). Linguistic simplification of SL reading material: Effective instructional practice?.
The Modern Language Journal
, 83(3), 350-366.

Tonja Byrom, M. Ed.
CSUF, Department of Secondary Education
Single Subject Credential Program, World Languages
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