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Jonathan Tong

on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of Batteries!

The Impact of
Nickel Cadmium
Batteries Jessie Lu Jonathan Tong Jack You Ms. Dicks
SCH3U1 - 18
Due: March 6th, 2013 The Battery PACMAN!!!!!! Adboy Das A (usually) small electrical containers that are able to hold electrical charge and produce power. What is it? Positive Terminal Negative Terminal A Battery There are 2 main categories of batteries 1. PRIMARY BATTERIES They are non-rechargeable, therefore disposable
Dry cells
Are usually cheap and last longer 2. SECONDARY BATTERIES Rechargeable!
Wet Cells
Usually more expensive, however do not last as long Ni-Cd BATTERY RECHARGEABLE The nickel-cadmium battery is a secondary battery! E.g. E.g. What do we use these batteries for? Most commonly used in small electronics, including:

Even found in: Now lets have a closer look at this metal; Cadmium PROPERTIES OF CADMIUM Soft Bluish-white Transitional metal: Atomic #48
- Typically 2+ RELATIVELY low melting point (321 degrees Celsius) Can be found in zinc ores Conducts electricity well Electronegativity of 1.5 Hexagonal crystal structure Toxic heavy metal That's all nice to know, but what role does it play in a battery? Cadmium and the Nickel-Cadmium battery Cadmium is the NEGATIVE electrode (also known as cathode) THE FORMULA:
Ni2O3 + Cd <=>2NiO2 + 2CdO (It is reversible) Converts chemical energy into electrical energy The electrolyte of the battery: Potassium Hydroxide allows the conduction of electricity and prevents the electrons from the cathode going straight to the anode The battery begins its electrochemical reactions when the circuit is closed!
For example, when you press the on/off button of a toy, it closes or opens the circuit Cadmium is the source of energy! Yeah cadmium is great and all, but the soft metal isn't so friendly to us humans Exposure to this metal can cause a lot of damage to our bodies Cadmium Poisoning Lung and Kidney Damage Mental Retardation Heart Disease CANCER High Blood Pressure And the list goes on... Although the main targets of cadmium exposures are industrial factory/building workers (smelting zinc ores), there are other methods of exposure Cadmium might even be found in common foods! Such as fish, white flour, white rice and more! As one may know, chemicals and man-made products aren't usually environmentally friendly. Sadly, cadmium is no exception.
It's no more friendly to the environment than it is to us Relating purely to the battery (as well as production), one of the main methods of Cadmium entering the environment is from the disposal of the nickel-cadmium battery Because some dispose of these batteries as municipal waste, they end up like other garbage in landfills Along with many other dangerous chemical substances (e.g. OTHER BATTERIES) What happens to Cadmium in landfills? It seeps into the soil and ground water, polluting lakes/oceans, contaminating water Wildlife then becomes affected Not only are aquatic animals affected, land animals (including us) are also affected! Not to mention the increase of concentration as you move up the food pyramid Pollutants are also released through smokestacks, with cadmium being in a gaseous state. Which then is released into our atmosphere. This further adds to our air pollution Repeating the toxicity cycle of our Earth. But there is hope in reducing these horrible effects Method 1: A Substitute
- because we cannot reduce the cadmium within the battery without hindering performance, a less toxic substance may be used NOTE: These are still toxic, although have a smaller impact on the environment Lithium-ion Nickel-metal hydride Small sealed lead-acid Rechargeable alkaline manganese batteries Method 2: Charge them!
-These batteries are rechargeable. So why not help save the environment, and a few dollars! These batteries are actually capable of being recharged hundreds of times! As opposed to unrechargable primary batteries (e.g. alkaline dry cells) WALKTHROUGH - THE NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY Method 3: Recycling
- Recycling has become a vital part of modern day Earth in order to preserve our resources! Many major stores such as Ikea, Canadian Tire, Best Buy and more now accept batteries in order to properly recycle them! If all else fails, go to your local hazardous waste drop-off center! There are also other procedures that have been taken in order to reduce/lessen the cadmium impact 1. Limestone

Limestone has been placed in contaminated lakes in order to neutralize the acidity of the water
(As caused by cadmium and other toxic materials) 2. Filters

Specialized filters have been added to smokestacks in order to minimize amounts of cadmium (and other hazardous gases) from being released into the atmosphere not a big deal *NOT ACTUALLY A CADMIUM BATTERY TOYS! Cell Phones Cameras and Camcorders Railway Lights Aircrafts Air conditioners (1) (1) (1) (6) (2) (7) Initially, the symptoms of ingesting Cadmium are
Muscular Cramps ^Here (5) (6) (5) (6) (4) (6) (6) (5) (6) 1. Math, Irwin. "Battery." The New Book of Knowledge. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
2. Keller, Douglas V., Jr. "Cadmium." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
3. Elkins, Hervey B. "Industrial Health." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
4. "Water Pollution." The New Book of Popular Science. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
5. Manitoba, Government of. https://www.gov.mb.ca/health/publichealth/environmentalhealth/cadmium.html. 27 December 2012. Article. 28 February 2013.
6. Fishbein, Bette. Industry Program to Collect Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Batteries. New York: Inform, Inc., 2009. Webpage.
7. "Cadmium." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 5 Mar. 2013. exclamation mark Smoking; traces of cadmium are even found in cigarettes! (Causing lung cancer)

SMOKING = BAD! Bibliography: Picture Bibliography
(1) http://images.samys.com/imagesproc/L2ltYWdlcy9wcm9kdWN0L21haW4vUy0wMDk5ODV4NTAwLmpwZw==_H_SW200_MH200.jpg
(2) http://www.flickr.com/photos/photos_by_laurence/3227190574/
(3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium
(4) http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM151W/12-Final/KOH.jpg
(5) http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/0/c/h/poison.jpg
(6) http://www.utopsie.com/word/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/biohazard.gif
(7) http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/media/inline/blog/Image/white_rice_diabetes.jpg
(8) http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_b92puY_pTEw/S7-cVdEmTII/AAAAAAAAAxY/S4eG0qKiLQs/s1600/white_lily_bag.jpg
(9) http://consciousparents.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/oh-no.jpg
(10) http://money.usnews.com/dbimages/master/16893/FE_DA_0526brink.money.jpg
(11) http://smartcanucks.ca/free-energizer-batteries-at-giant-tiger-after-coupon/
(12) http://www.drinkstuff.com/products/product.asp?ID=1965
(13) http://www.digikey.ca/ca/en/techzone/energy-harvesting/resources/articles/storage-battery-specifications.html (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (8) (9) (10) (12) (11) (13)
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