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The Tree of Life

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shelby thompson

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of The Tree of Life

The Tree of Life Fungi -all fungi are eukaryotic
-reproduce by means of spores, usually dispersed by the wind
-fungi usually aren't motile but some have a motile phase
-fungi are heterotrophic
-body made of tiny filaments, thin and tubular in shape called hyphae
-in some fungi, each hypha is one continuous cell and in others the hyphae are separated by wall-like structures called septa
-each cell (separated or continuous) contains flowing cytoplasm and one or more nuclei
-cell wall is made of chitin
-when hyphae grow together in a mass it is called mycelium (basic body of fungi)
-mycelium increase the surface area of the fungi in order to absorb more nutrients
-not all fungi are made of hypha, yeasts are unicellular, therefore produce round or oblong cells that come from a mother cell to produce daughter cells
-rhizoids are the root-like part of fungi that anchor them to what they happen to be bonding to, called the substrate Common Structures Gas Exchange -fungi grow mostly underground and exchanges gases within the soil instead of the atmosphere
-the soil contains 'pores' (microscopic pockets of air)
-the hypha of the fungus are small enough to grow into the small spaces between the different substances in the soil and exchange gases with the 'pores' in the soil
-the air in the soil contains everything plants would absorb form the atmosphere, especially oxygen
-some fungi, like yeast, absorb oxygen through tiny pores in aerobic respiration if oxygen and air are available
-if not, the yeast will absorb what nutrients they can, performing anaerobic respiration and causing fermentation in the process Circulation - --- -fungi do not have hearts or blood vessels
-their circulatory system is made up of masses of connecting hyphae
-the hyphae grow at the tips and expand into the nutrients the fungi is decomposing
-the hyphae assist in nutrient exchange and nutreint and water absorption
-the hyphae are responsible for transporting nutrients throughout the fungi Digestion -hyphae grow across food source
and release digestive enzymes
-larger organic molecules are
broken down into smaller organic molecules that diffuse into the fungus and are used to fuel growth and repair -extracellular digestion Reproduction Impact -fungi are decomposers, along with bacteria, they recycle vital elements back into the ecosystem such as nitrogen and phosphorus
-fungi can be economically valuable, for example strains of yeast are responsible for the fermentation of grains and grapes in the wine and beer industries, also ergotamine (from ergot fungus) is used to relieve the pain of migraines and stimulate uterine contraction during childbirth and prevents hemorrhaging
-fungi are also used as mind-altering and spiritual drugs
-some mushrooms are taken as healing and preventive medicines Zygomycetes Basidiomycetes Ascomycetes Deuteromycetes Imperfect Fungi Sac Fungi Club Fungi Zygospore Fungi Zygospore Fungi are characterized by the spherical spores that are formed during sexual reproduction which does occur but is not as common as asexual reproduction. These spores are called zygospores. Club Fungi are characterized by the spores called basidiospores that from on club shaped hyphae called basidia. They reproduce sexually via these specialized cells which bear meiospores (usually four). However some may additionally reproduce asexually. The Sac Fungi are characterized by their small finger-like sacs called asci which develop during sexual reproduction. Immobile spores are formed withing the ascus (plural) called ascospores. This group of fungi are referred to as a monophyletic group meaning all of it's members can be traced back to one common ancestor. Imperfect Fungi are characterized by their lack of a sexual phase of reproduction as other fungi possess. These fungi reproduce only asexually. Dibotryon Morbosum Cryphonectria Parasitica Morchella Esculenta Pezizaceae Saccharomyces
Cerevisiae Bracket Fungi Pucciniales Ustilaginales Lycoperdaceae Schizophyllum Commune -sexual reproduction in fungi involves the mating of two compatible nuclei
Zygomycetes have sexual spores that are thick walled called zygospores, asexual spores are internal in a sporangium
Ascomycota have sexual spores that grow internally in a sac called an ascus, asexual spores are external called canidia
Basidiomycetes have spores that grow externally on a club-shaped structure called a basidium, they usually do not have asexual spores
Deuteromycetes have no know sexual state in their life cycle, asexually reproduce by conidia
-asexual reproduction in fungi is when the offspring come from a single parent
-types of asexual reproduction:
Fission > parent cell divides into two daughter cells
Budding > cell splits creating a mother and daughter cell
Spore formation > spores are formed during sporogenisis
Fragmentation > new organism grows from a separated fragment of parent plant Life Cycles Deuteromycota Ascomycota Zygomycota Coral Fungi Penicillium Truffle Rhizopus Basidiobolus Ranarum Massospora Cicadina Rhizopus fungi can be found on mature fruits and vegetables, faeces, jellies, syrups, leather, bread, peanuts and tobacco. Some Rhizopus species cause fungal infections in humans that can be fatal. The niche that Rhizopus
fungus occupies is
decomposing organisms.
It breaks down the nutrients
so that they are able to be
used again. By decomposing dead matter, this fungus allows the brokendown material to be used my other organisms. Entomophthora Muscae Most Entomophthorales are pathogens of insects. The name is derived from the greek meaning 'insect destroyer'. They are usually found in regions with a cool, humid climate and plenty of resting hosts. This zygomycete fungus invades the innards of houseflies, and then pushes aside the thorax plates to thrust its spore-bearing hyphae out into the air. It starts out by taking over a housefly’s nervous system, and drives it to fly upwards toward the light to allow dispersal of the spores to new hosts. Basidiobolus Ranarum is a microscopic fungus that can be isolated from decaying leaf litter and the excrement of frogs and terrestrial, insect-eating reptiles. It can also be a human pathogen, causing a disease called basidiobolomycosis. This zygomycota's role in the environemtn is most likely to recycle cadavars in nature. This fungus can cause Subcutaneous Zygomycosis, a gastrointestinal infection. It has been reported from tropical Africa, India, Indonesia and South East Asia including the Northern Territory of Australia. Massospora Cicadina is a fungal disease that affects the 13- and 17-year cicada (insect). The fungus lies dormant in the ground for either 13 or 17 years before becoming active. It is one of the most lethal threats to cicadas. The cicadas become infected by making contact with the spores underground. The fungus grows in their abdomen, causing it to fall off. The spores then infect another batch of cicadas causing their abdomens to also fall off, the spores then fall and lie dormant in the ground for another 13 to 17 years. The fungus makes both males and females sterile This fungi will make a coral-like mushroom in colours of white, orange, yellow, red, purple, or tan. Coral mushrooms can be found on the forest floor, twigs or logs. Some are parasitic on trees and other plants. Most of these fungi are decomposers. Phallaceae Phallacea fungus is more commonly known as stinkhorn mushrooms. They can be found worldwide and are known to pop up randomly but strive in the more tropical regions. These mushrooms are know for the foul smelling spore masses called receptaculum that grow on the end of their stalks. The spores usually smell similar to dung which attracts flies and insects that help spread the spores. All of these fungi start out as oval or round structures referred to as eggs. Bracket Fungi may also be referred to as Shelf Fungi because they grow fruiting bodies in the shape of a bracket or shelf called conks. They are normally found on trees (living and dead) and coarse woody debris and can come in a single vertical row or a massive cluster of conks that can weigh several hundred pounds. Some species of bracket fungi are cultivated for human consumption or medicinal use. These fungi are commonly known as Puffballs. The distinguishing feature of all puffballs is that they do not have an open cap with spore-bearing gills. Instead, spores are produced internally, in a spherical fruiting body called a gasterothecium. The spores form a mass in the center of the fruiting body called a gleba, the spores get emitted from the basidia. Some Puffball Fungi are edible though most are poisonous, some fatal when injested. Puffballs were traditionally used in Tibet for making ink by burning them, grinding the ash, then putting them in water and adding glue liquid and "a nye shing ma decoction", which, when pressed for a long time, made a very black dark substance which was used as ink. Schizophyllum Commune is a very common fungus, it can be found on every continent except Antarctica. The gills, which produce basidiospores on their surface split when the mushroom dries out which is why this mushroom is commonly known as Split Gill. It is common in rotting wood, but can also cause disease in humans. The Split Gill mushroom is edible although it is mostly only eaten in Mexico and elsewhere in the tropics because of it"s tough, rubbery texture. The common name for this fungus is 'Smuts'. They are mostly an agricultural pathogen. Some hosts include maize, barley, wheat, oats, sugarcane, and forage grasses. Once infected, the smuts take over the plants' reproductive systems, forming outgrowths referred to as galls which darken and burst releasing spores and infecting nearby plants. This fungus is referred to as Rust.
Rusts can affect a variety of plants; leaves, stems, fruits and seeds. During late spring or early summer, yellow orange or brown, hairlike structures called telia grow on the leaves or from bark of trees such as Junipers. These telia produce teliospores which will germinate into aerial basidiospores, spreading and causing further infection. Rusts don't always kill their host but these parasites are capable of devastating crops and if trees are infected in the main stem they will also die. Arthrobotrys Oligospora Arthrobotys Oligospora's common prey is nemotodes (roundworm). This fungus has a sticky network of hyphae that trap the nemotodes and once they are immobilized, the fungus invades and consumes its body. This fungus is known for causing the disease Chestnut Blight in American Chestnut trees. The fungus enters through wounds and grows in and beneath the bark, eventually killing the cambium (tissue in plant) all the way around the tree trunk, branch, or twig. Because of the disease, American chestnut wood almost disappeared from the market for decades. Truffle mushrooms are highly prized as food, they are commonly used in gourmet dishes. The mycelia of Truffles form a symbiotic relationship with many different species of trees including beech, poplar, oak, birch, hornbeam, hazel, and pine. They can therefore be found buried between the leaf litter and the soil around trees. Dibotryon Morbosum is a plant pathogen, it is the cause of Black Knot disease. The disease produces rough, black areas that encircle and kill the infested parts, and provide habitat for insects. It affects the cherry, plum, apricot and Schubert chokecherry trees of North America. The knots only grow on the wood parts of trees but they can circle and spread, killing all affected parts. Commonly known as Morels. The mushroom is usually found in early spring, in forests, orchards, yards, gardens and sometimes in recently burned areas. It is an edible fungus though old fruit bodies that show signs of decay may be poisonous. Morchella Esculenta is also used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat indigestion, excessive phlegm, and shortness of breath. Commonly known as Cup Fungi. These mushrooms tend to grow in the shape of a cup, this is to focus raindrops into splashing spores out of the cup the shape also allows wind to blow the spores differently than other fungi. The vividly colored scarlet cup (Sarcoscypha coccinea) is often one of the first signs of spring where it grows. By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols. This yeast grows naturally on decaying fruits that provide it with sugars. One of the most famous fruits are grapes because of their aid in the discovery of wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also found in and on animals, plants, and other sugary foods. The yeast can be found anywhere that it can get enough nutrients. Yeast provides carbon dioxide for the surrounding environment and breaks down sugars. -Fungi can be classified as saprophytes, parasites and mutualists (symbionts)
-saprophytes use non-living organic material, they are important in recycling carbon, nitrogen and essential mineral nutrients
-parasites use organic material from living organisms, harming them in some way
-mutualists/simbionts have a mutualistically beneficial relationshipe with other living organisms -fungi reproduce sexually and asexually
-all sexual fungal life cycles include; plasmogamy (cell fusion), karyogamy (nuclear fusion) and meiosis Penicillium is a common fungi, found in soil in cool and moderate climates. It is usually found wherever organic material is available. Some species of Penicillium play an important role in the production of
cheese and some meat products. This fungi is a also a source of some major antibiotics. Penicillin can be produced from Penicillium, it is used as an antibiotic to kill or stop the growth of certain bacterias growing in the body. Penicillium also produces Griseofulvin which is an antifungal drug. CliffsNotes.com. Deuteromycetes. 10 Jan 2013
<http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-8741,articleId-8666.html>. Trichophyton Rubrum This fungus is the most common cause of athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm. It Is usually found in warm moist places. It is also the most common cause of finger nail fungus infections. Absidia Corymbifera This pathogenic fungi usually infects the lungs, nose, eyesight, brain and skin. It can cause zygomycosis and mucormycosis in humans. Absidia Corymbifera is common in most environments, though it is often associated with warm decaying plant matter such as in compost heaps. Cunninghamella Cunninghamella is a fungus found in soil and plant material, particularly at Mediterranean and subtropical zones. It has also been found in animal material, cheese, and Brazil nuts. In addition to being a common contaminant, Cunninghamella may contaminate hosts with compromised immune systems. Apiognomonia Veneta Conrad, J. (2011, December 15). The imperfect fungi. Retrieved from http://www.backyardnature.net/f/fungimpf.htm Apiognomonia veneta is a plant pathogen that causes anthracnose (plant disease) in London Plane trees. During warm winter periods the fungi kills the tree bark.
But the fungi requires a warm, wet spring to kill the leaf veins. Koh., J. K. (2003). Trichosporon cutaneum. Retrieved from http://www.doctorfungus.org/thefungi/Trichosporon_cutaneum.php Volk, T. (2000). The kingdom fungi. Retrieved from http://www.uwlax.edu/biology/volk/fungi3/sld033.htm Pezizaceae. (2012, April 14). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pezizaceae Kinds of group fungi. (2010, March 05). Retrieved from http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Groups_Fungi Rust. (2012, June). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rust Puffball. (2012, November 28). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puffball Arthrobotrys. (2012, October 12). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthrobotrys Schizophyllum commune. (2012, December 26). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophyllum_commune Trichophyton rubrum. (2012, December 25). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichophyton_rubrum Reproduction of fungi. (2007, April 08). Retrieved from http://www.microbiologybytes.com/introduction/myc2.html Gregory, M. J. (2013, January). Fungi. Retrieved from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio 102/bio 102 lectures/fungi/fungi.htm Morchella esculenta. (2012, November 23). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morchella_esculenta Dibotryon morbosum. (2012, December 14). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dibotryon_morbosum Truffle. (2013, January 01). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truffle Chestnut blight. (2012, December 22). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chestnut_blight List examples of zygomycota, ascomycota basidiomycota and deuteromycota?. (2007). Retrieved from http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index? Massospora cicadina. (2009, Februaury). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massospora_cicadina Basidiomycota. (2012, November 09). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basidiomycota Ascomycota. (2012, December 11). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascomycota Zygomycota. (2012, December 10). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zygomycota Pallaceae. (2012, December 25). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phallaceae Fogel, R. (2006, November 06). Fun facts about fungi. Retrieved from http://herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/funfacts/coralfungi.htm Bracket fungus. (2012, November 30). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracket_fungus Smut. (2012, June 14). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smut Galbraith, D., Blake, L., Bullard, J., Chetty, A., Grace, E., Matovinovic, D., Price, G., & Mason, A. (2001). Kingdom fungi. In L. Jenkins & Y. Pam (Eds.), McGraw-Hill Ryerson Biology 11 (pp. 450-458). Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. Kingdom: Fungi characteristics& structures. (2012). Retrieved from http://schoolworkhelper.net/kingdom-fungi-characteristics-structure/


Fungal reproduction. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/kingdoms-living-world/fungal-reproduction.php McIntosh, P. (2008, december 14). The fungal kingdom. Retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/the-fungal-kingdom-a84182 Lacoma, T. (n.d.). Method of gas exchange in fungus. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/way_6367812_method-gas-exchange-fungus.html The kingdom fungi. (2009, Feb. 01). Retrieved from http://scienceray.com/biology/the-kingdom-fungi/ Cell division and multicellular life cycles. (2002, May 02). Retrieved from http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/celldivision/lifecycles.htm Armstrong, W. P. (2010, January 25). The amazing kingdom of fungi. Retrieved from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0504.htm Major divisions of life. (2012, December 30). Retrieved from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar99.htm Fungus. (2012, December 26). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus Aspergillus This mold can be found in various climates all over the world. It is used in making soy sauce and is also responsible for aspergillosis, a form of pneumonia. Aspergillus. (2013, January 09). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspergillus Candida Albicans This fungus grows as both yeasts or filamentous cells. It is the common cause of oral and genital infections in humans. Candida Albicans is the cause of many major health concerns. The normal habitat of this fungi is the mucosal membranes of humans and various other mammals. Candida albicans. (2012, December 24). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candida_albicans Rhizoctonia Rhizoctonia. (2012, October 14). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhizoctonia This species is found in soil, Producing fruiting bodies on dead plant stems and plant debris. Rhizoctonia causes a wide range of plant diseases Rhizoctonia is responsible for the black scurf of potatoes. Basidiomycota Bibliography
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