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Smart & Modern Materials

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Caroline O'Neill

on 4 December 2012

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Transcript of Smart & Modern Materials

Smart & Modern Materials Interactive fabrics Buoyancy & inflatable Smart & Modern materials How much do we already know about smart & modern materials? What is a smart fabric? What conditions will activate a smart fabric? Moisture Interactive fabrics Biomimetics Micro-encapsulation A fabric that can respond to outside influences without human intervention is considered to be a smart fabric

A smart fabric can sense certain conditions
A smart fabric can react to certain conditions
A smart fabric can adapt to certain conditions Heat Chromatic properties

Thermochromic colour encapsulated into the surface of fabrics or printed on the surface will react to heat and change in colour.

This function may be used in fashion or may be used for more practical purposes such as oven gloves that change colour at a high temperature to warn the wearer of the heat.

An Italian manufacturer has invented fibres that react to heat by becoming tighter when hot, allowing more air to pass through; the fibres expand in the cold, reducing the airflow, to help the wearer acclimatise to the weather conditions. What conditions will activate a smart fabric? Solvation chromism has been developed mainly for disposable non-woven textiles where a fabric changes colour when wet, for example babies nappies. Light Photochromic fabrics are dyed to respond to light conditions and change colour. These are particularly good for military use, to reduce the need for camouflage net or change of uniform. An interactive fabric incorporates electronics that are reactivated by a power source. These are still smart fabrics, they just require power.

One important fabric development is in conductivity, where the fabric is electrically conductive while being soft and comfortable.

This conductivity can be added with metallic fibres, conductive printing inks and metallic coatings on the fabric surface.

Gorix is a carbonised fibre with conductivity, used in the heated car seats and for motorbike clothing. Examples of interactive fabrics include:

A waistcoat that has conductive fibres so disabled children can communicate
The life shirt, which monitors blood pressure
Tagging technology which can track a garment
Paramedics head wear that can film the patient and be sent to the doctors in the hospital
Garments with built in mobile phone technology
A tracksuit that can monitor your performance
Gloves with lights to allow cyclists to be seen at night
Heated gloves Summary Smart fabrics react to the conditions around them and have many different properties.

Interactive textiles, which use a power source to activate their properties, are becoming more widely used.

Some developments meet a real need and some are more of a novelty design feature.

New textiles are being developed all the time, the possibilities are endless. AQA Examiners Tip You will need to be aware of technological advancements in fibres, fabrics and products.

The ability to name and describe some of the smart, interactive and modern fabrics is important! Biomimetics means imitating a living bio system (nature).

Stomatex fabric keeps the wearer dry and comfortable during exercise.

Fastskin developed by speedo to be like the surface of a sharks skin, so it channels water away from the body making the swimmer more aerodynamic. Developed for the Sydney 2000 Olympics. Reflective Textiles Phosphorescent textiles Fibre optics Nanotechnology Preliminary material Using rainforests as the theme, develop ideas for a textiles product which includes a range of fabrics and components and some modern materials Technical and Modern Materials include the following examples:

• Gore-Tex
• Kevlar & Nomex
• Phosphorescent textiles
• Reflective textiles using glass beads
• Fabrics that wick moisture away from the body, eg Coolmax
• Microencapsulated fibres, eg those which release scents
• Fabrics with electronics, eg GPS systems,
• Geotextiles
• Materials using Nano-technology
• Microfibres Technical & Modern Fabrics Smart fabrics Micro-encapsulation has been developed in textiles to allow fibres and fabrics to be impregnated with microscopic bubbles of:
perfumes
anti-bacterial properties
anti allergenic properties
mosquito repellants
carbon digesters to absorb unpleasant fumes Technical & Modern Technical & Modern Technical & Modern Smart fabrics Textiles have been developed such as therma-float for use in buoyancy aids and life jackets, and inflatable yarns in swimwear for children and blow up bras. Reflective yarns are created using glass beads and are used for enhanced safety in cycling and for pedestrians out walking at night and for sportswear. Technical & Modern Phosphorescent textiles are used for glow-in-the-dark fashions (High visibility) Technical & Modern Smart fabrics Fibre optics are used in trainers for illuminated logos, and fibre optic sensors are inserted in military garments to detect harmful chemicals. Glass fibres used in the communications industry are known as fibre optics. Pulses of light passing along the length of a fibre are capable of sending digital messages. Nanotechnology in Textiles is in it's very early stages and is being developed to improve the performance of fabrics through controlling particles in fibres and fabrics. Nano-tex is one of the first manufacturers to help clothing firms such as Levi and Gap to develop stain resistant, more durable fabrics. Aristoc, for example, has developed a range of well-being tights micro encapsulated with fragrant oils, moisturisers or vitamins Kelvar Technical & Modern Kelvar and Cordura are branded aramid fibres, initially developed for the aerospace industry and tyre reinforcement. Five times stronger than steel, Kelvar came to the fashion industry via motor sports clothing and motorcycling. blended with lycra it now allows for greater movement and it ideal for active sports such as snowboarding. The fabric is great for cut, tear and abrasion resistance. Weatherproof treatments Technical & Modern Membranes form an impenetrable barrier to the elements and are incorporated into a layering system of the garment, behind the outer fabric layer. They can be microporous, with lots of tiny pours to allow water vapour to escape . Brand names you may recognise are GORE-TEX and Sympatex. GORE-TEX uses the systems of two and three layer laminates with fine membranes that allow small internal sweat molecules to pass out from the body, and prevent larger exterior water droplets from entering. Thermal insulating materials Technical & Modern The warmth of thermal performance of a fibre is created by air trapped between the fibres and yarns. There are now technological developments available which help the body to cope with extreme temperature changes and prevent overheating. Temperature regulation technology - Phase changing materials is the term applied to technology originally developed by NASA for space crews.
The new technology is still in the early stages of development , although it is on the market.
The Nomex aramid fibre produced by DoPont has thermal qualities used for heat protection in firemens' clothing and everyday items such as oven gloves produced by Coolskin in the UK. Reflective yarns Reflective inks Reflective inks can be screen printed on to the surface of a fabric. The inks also contain minute glass balls, which reflect light back to the viewer. Reflective finishes The reflective funnyman can also be performed by a coating on the fabrics surface. One example is white reflective material, which reflects ultra-bright light. Moisture management Modern athletes require clothing that is both functional and fashionable. For a sports garment ot be comfortable when worn close to the skin, it must either absorb perspiration or allow it to pass through the fabric. Coolmax fabrics transport perspiration away from the body to the surface of the garment, and are used extensively for high performance athletic wear. Goretex allows small sweat particles to pass out from the body while stopping moisture from coming in.

Transpor dry fibre is a two layer protection method, perspiration exits through the Transpor layer without being absorbed and spreads across the outer layer where it can evaporate. It also keeps the damp layer away from the skin. Microfibres Nanomaterials Exam techniques - Answering long questions 1) Microfibres are really thin fibres - they can be up to 100 times thinner than human hair.

2) They are usually synthetic fibres such as polyester or polyamide.

3) They're very versitile - they can be woven, knitted, or bonded to make fabrics.

4) Microfibres can be woven so tightly that they stop water droplets from penetrating, but let water vapour (e.g. sweat) escape - so the fabric is water repellant and breathable.

5) Microfibres are expensive, so they are often blended with cotton, linen or silk to reduce costs.

6) Microfibre based fabrics are soft, comfortable to wear, last well and hang beautifully. They are used to make underwear, sportswear, hoisery and outdoor clothing. Nanomaterials include fabrics made from nanofibres, or regular fibres that have been modified using nanotechnology.

Nanofibres are often made from carbon or synthetic polymers. They are very, very thin and light, but are also very strong. They're often made into non-woven, felt like sheets. Potential applications include lightweight, bulletproof vests.

Nanotechnology
1) Existing fibres and fabrics can be modified using nanotechnology to give them new properties.

2) Thin layers or nanoparticles (extremely tiny particles of a substance) can be attached to common fibres and fabrics. The layers are so thin that unlike conventional finishe, they don't change the feel of the fabric.

3) This technology is already being used to create antibacterial fabrics by attaching nanoparticles of silver. These fabrics have lots of medical uses, e.g. face masks, dressings, and can even be used for odour-free socks.

4) Another development is fabric that is coated with nanoparticles that will resist and break down dirt and stains, making self-cleaning fabrics. Smart& modern fabrics Modern materials 1) Make sure that you check the amount of marks available, this will give you an indication of the amount of points you will need to include in your answer.

2) Make sure you always answer fully and with as much detail as possible.

3) Where possible include a diagram.
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