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El Nino, La Nina, Upwelling

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Isabel Tung

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of El Nino, La Nina, Upwelling

El Nino, La Nina, Upwelling
El Nino
Process: There is a change in surface currents along the coasts and a decrease in upwelling. Water temperature increases. There is an Atmospheric sea- saw; decreasing atmosphere pressure in South Eastern Pacific-> Increasing pressure in East Indian Ocean-> weakening trade winds -> coastal upwelling -> no cold water.
Regions found: South Eastern Pacific Ocean (ex. Peru and Chile)
La Nina
Process: When Pacific winds blow more strongly, causing more upwelling and cooler waters in eastern regions and warmer waters in western regions. There is a cooling trend of surface water
Regions found: Eastern Pacific.
By: Isabel Tung, Arnav Modi, Bradley Gosiengfiao, Sam Alizadeh
Period 1

Process: It is caused by Ekman transport, which causes large amounts of nutrient- rich water to move up to surface water from the cold sea bed. Wind blows across the ocean's surface and pulls the surface water with it. As the surface water leaves an area, the 'hole' left behind is filled in by water 'upwelling' water from below.
Regions found: Occurs in various areas in the open ocean.
How does it affect marine life?
Most sea life is located near the surface where sunlight is abundant but most nutrients and organic matter are located much deeper. Upwelling brings organic matter to the surface providing marine life with a rich supply of nutrients necessary for growth and reproduction.
How does it affect human life?
Upwelling provides nutrients for the growth of algae and other small organisms. These small organisms, being at the bottom of the food chain, distribute energy to larger forms of marine life. These various forms of larger marine life are foods that we fish and eat (i.e. tuna, salmon, etc.). Indirectly upwelling supports our sea food appetite and our fishing industry.
How does it affect marine life?
The periodic changes in ocean currents cause the disappearance of anchovy schools, disrupting anchovy fishing off Peru in the winter time. Upwelling is slowed so nutrients can't get to marine life near surface of the ocean.The marine life cannot instantly adapt to the heightened water temperatures. Threatened marine mammals and ocean life would have to relocate due to unfavorable conditions and might die in the process of doing so.
How does it affect human life?
El Nino can cause all types of natural disasters to happen that negatively impacts the lives of so many people. It can cause casualties, and deaths. Ex. After floods that poured in Kenya, a plague broke out causing blindness amongst the population of people in Kenya. However, scientists have created new technology that can now track ENSO and better prepare their government to protect the people in that area. Also, it helps relocate the marine life and nutrient- rich minerals so sailors and fishery businesses will not go down.
How does it affect marine life?
As opposed to El Nino, La Nina increases the upwelling cycles in the ocean. As upwelling is increased nutrients can easily get to more marine life. As more and more surface dwelling creatures receive these vital nutrients the more they can reproduce creating large populations of various forms of marine life.
How does it affect human life?
Castro, Peter, and Michael E. Huber. Marine Biology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

El Nino Forecasting Could Aid Fisheries Management, Disease Control, Marine Species Protection. (2005, February 20). A
Scribe Science News Service. Retrieved from http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/NewsDetailsPage/NewsDetailsWindow?query=&prodId=SCIC&displayGroupName=News&limiter=&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&action=2&catId=&activityType=&documentId=GALE%7CA128971115&userGroupName=san00962&jsid=673d1e6e001fac34a962af1d5869d2c0.

NOAA Public Affairs (1998, November 13). Answers to La Nina Frequently Asked Questions. ElNino.NOAA.gov. Retrieved
from http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html.

Rosenberry, Bob. n.d. El Nino Shrimp and Fishing. ShrimpNews.com Retrieved from

Upwellings. (2011). In Environmental Encyclopedia. Gale. Retrieved from

La Nina can cause droughts most often in the western pacific region. It can also cause severe flooding. The 2010 La Nina contributed to a deluge (severe flood) in Queensland, Australia resulting in millions of dollars in property damage as much of the city was submerged in water. The same La NIna contributed to an increased number of tornado activity in the Midwest United States and a severe blizzard in the North Eastern United States. All of which resulted in billions of dollars in property damage.
Text Sources:
Picture Sources:
Department of Atmospheric Sciences at UNiversity of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. n.d. Diagram Of Upwelling. [Diagram]. Retrieved from

Madl, Pierre (2000, December 1). Diagram Of El Nino. [Diagram]. Retrieved from http://biophysics.sbg.ac.at/atmo/el-scans/el-nino1.jpg

Rosenberry, Bob. n.d. La Nina Diagram in Pacific. [Diagram]. Retrieved from http://www.shrimpnews.com/Graphics/Weather/LaNina.jpg

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