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kingdom Animalia

Biology 11

kalkidan gebre

on 12 April 2011

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Transcript of kingdom Animalia

-With over 2 million different types of animals, kingdom anamalia is the largest of the 5 kingdoms.

-These organisims are mostly multicellular and rely on other organisms for food and energy.

-Most animals ingest their food and then digest it in some kind of internal cavity.

It has a soft body which is protected by a shell
The shell is made of calcium carbonate
Snail’s eyes are found in the tentacles that are on the top of its head, if it has two pairs of tentacles; the eyes are usually found on the longer pair.
Land snails have lungs, while sea snails have gills
A snail has a foot that allows it to move, it's a long organ that spreads out under the snails body. It is a large group (over 100,000 different kinds!) of soft bodied animals that have no bones, and usually have a hard outer shell that protect their soft bodies, which are made of calcium carbonate, and a chalky material.

For example: snails, slugs, clams, octopuses, and scallops.
A snails shell serves to protect its body from predators, and helps to contain water during dry times (for land snails)

Snails tentacles can retract into its head when danger is approaching Mullusca Snail Coelenterata/Cnidarian
Name of a group of soft-bodied water animals.
It's a diverse group with over 9000 species such as the jellyfish.
Anatomy Jellyfish come in many diffrent forms but their body construction is reasonably similar.

They are sometimes described as a sac within a sac (2 layers,sometimes 3 layers).

Composed of approximately 95% water, 3% salt and 2% protein.

They have no eyes, brain, bones or heart and yet are one on the oldest multi-cellular creatures known to man. They even existed long before the first dinosaurs roamed the Earth.

Bell or umbrella shaped body

Tentacles with special stinging cells hang down from bodies ring like edge.
Jellyfish have stinging tentacles that are not only to protect themselves but also to sting their prey.
These passive drifters also feed on organisms that get caught in their long tentacles
They then bring their prey towards their oral cavity using their long tentacles.
Oral cavity is the only opening of the jellyfish where it recives and gets rid of materials and waist.
Jellyfish are carnivorous.

They eat mostly zoo-planktons,comb jellies, small or dead fish, and sometimes even other jellyfish. Diet Obtaining food Excretion After food enters the cavity, it slowly digests into feces and monomers(obsorbed by body tissue).

Feces(discharge of waist matter) gets exerted out through the cavity (mouth/anus opening) along with H2O and CO2 Circulation Jellyfish do not have a true circulatory system.

Does not contain blood or blood vessels. Respiration The walls of the jellyfish body and tentacles are very thin.

It's so thin that the oxygen molecules are able to pass directly from the water into the internal organs.

Carbon dioxide molecules pass out of the body in the same way. Life Cycle Jellyfish pass through 2 diffrent body types.

Small Polyp form or Medusa which is the familiar form.

Jellyfish are male or female and reproduce sexually or asexually.

The reproductive organ(gonads) develop in the lining of the gut.

During sexual reproduction male release sperm through their opening into the water.

The sperm swims into the oral cavity of the female where fertilization occurs. Small swimming larva(planula) leave the mouth or brood pouch of the jellyfish into the water. The Larva settles to the sea floor and attaches itself to a hard surface, forming polyps. The polyp devides and turns into young jellyfish (Ephyra) In a few weeks, they grow into an adult jellyfish (Medusa) After completing this complex life cycle, it lives 3-6 months Locomotion Jellyfish swim freely in the water not having much control over their movements.

Some "swim", using jet propulsion.

jellyfish have special muscles called coronal muscles, located underside of the bell, this pushes water out of the hollow bell. As water gets pushed in one direction, the jellyfish moves in the opposite direction.

Others attach themselves to moving things like seaweed.

Jellyfish also depend on ocean current, tides and wind for movemnt Kingdom Animalia Anatomy Physiology Locomotion A snail moves with it’s one large foot at the bottom of its body
It creates a wave like motion with its foot, that slowly pushes its body forward every time
In order to move easily, it creates a slime (mucus) that comes out a gland in the front of its foot. This helps them go over rough surfaces, and creates a suction to help hold on to things.
It can travel max. 16 feet per hour. •Inside the snails mouth they have something called the radula, which is like strong tongue, they use this to bring bits of food into their mouths.
•On the radula they have rows of tiny sharp teeth (which are made of chiton).
•They eat by pressing the radula under their food, and then bring it in to scrape away small particles
•With the radula they can grind bits of soft stones and take in the calcium.
Obtaining food Diet •Snails are herbivores
•They will eat plants, algae, fruit, anything in the garden, and if they can’t find plant materials to consume they will eat dirt
•It is important for them to consume a diet of calcium, so they can keep their shell strong.
•If they eat sugar or salt they will die
•During dry seasons they sometimes will put their self into hibernation, so they can conserve energy and not have to search for additional food.
Digestion After the snail takes in food, it goes down the snails throat towards its stomach
The snail produces saliva part way through the throat that helps digest carbohydrates, and changes the food into a pulp
Then it reachs the gullet to be digested
The digestive track is then continued by the intestine, which opens up outside by the anus

Circulation •A huge part of the snail’s body mass is blood (25-50%)
•Starting at the heart, the blood flows through the main artery (the aorta) into the body
•The aorta then goes into many smaller arteries, which supply different part of the body with blood
•Capillary veins in the snail suck the blood from the body and then transport it back to the lung, where its reloaded with oxygen
Respiration •When the snail inhales it widens the respiratory cavity by lowering the cavity floor, which allows oxygen to flow into the cavity
•When the snail exhales, it opens the pneumostome (breathing pore) and raises the cavity floor to press out the air.
•The respiratory cavity floor does the same thing a human does in order to inhale, and exhale.
Jelly fish Life cycle •Starts off as an egg, then when they hatch they are very hungry and will eat their shell right away
•They need to consume calcium fast in order to make a strong shell to protect itself from predators
•The shell the baby is born in will stay with it for life, and it gradually adds on layers to the opening of the shell as it grows.
•After a couple of years the snail is matured, and is ready to mate and lay eggs
•Snails are hermaphrodites, so they have both male and female reproductive organs.
•Reproduction still requires 2 snails, because they still fertilize each other. Digestion Jellyfish have an incomplete digestive system.

That's why they use the same cavity for intake of food and expulsion of waste materials.

When food enters the cavity, it slowly digests into feces(discharged waist matter) & monomers( molecule that bond to other identical molecules forming polyme).

Monomers are obsorbed by body tissue. Echinodermata Anatomy An invertebrate marine animal usually characterized by a five-fold symmetry, and possessing an internal skeleton of calcite plates, and a complex water vascular system. Includes echinoids (sea urchins), crinoids (sea lillies) and asteroids (starfish). / Physiology Starfish take on the shape of a star.
Starfish have what they call pedicellariae; they’re tiny stalked pincers that cover the starfish’s skin. Pedicellariae protect the animal from parasites and may also be used in defense.
A starfish’s skin is covered with living tissue under laid with small, hard skeletal units called ossicles.
Thin areas on a starfish are called papules, they function as gills.
A sunflower starfish can have up to 16 to 24 arms. They usually start out with 5 arms.
The central part of the starfish is called its disk. This disk contains the starfish’s main organs, including a two-chambered stomach and intestines, all suspended in a fluid-filled cavity.
If an arm is severed or damaged, that starfish can grow a new one from its oral disk.
Obtaining food/ Diet/ Digestion and Excretion Starfish find their food by using their tube feet.
They usually eat; sea urchins, clams, worms, snails, hermit crabs, sea cucumbers and other starfish at times.
Once they catch their prey they wrap their tube feet around their back side they use their suction cups to pry the thing open.
Then the starfish’s stomach comes OUT of its body through a hole in the centre of their disk.
Starfish extrude their stomach to digest their prey externally then suck up what’s left of the prey. For example; with clams they pull them apart with their tube feet.
The clam eventually tires of ‘clamming-up’ and opens. The starfish then extrudes its stomach inside of the clam and digests it.
Further digestion occurs in the intestine.
Waste is either excreted through the anus on the aboral side of the body, or excreted through the mouth if the anus is absent as in brittle stars. Circulation Circulation occurs in three places:
The perivisceral coelom (the space inside the body but outside the various organs)
The water vascular system (of which the tube feet are the most obvious part)
The hermal system (which actually looks something like a circulatory system).
A dorsal sac attached to the axial sinus pulsates, sort of like a very inefficient heart. Respiration Starfish breathe through their tube feet. They’re made of very thin tissue so that gasses can move through them easily.
The starfish has a water vascular system in which the respiratory exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.
The tube feet of the starfish act like gills. The Oxygen enters the water vascular system through the tube feet as the carbon dioxide exits the body.
Life Cycle Locomotion Tube feet are the part of the starfish’s water-vascular system, used for locomotion and respiration.
The tube feet work hydraulically.
When the ampullae contracts water is forced into the tube feet, and allows them to elongate.
The tube feet secrete chemicals that help them attach to and then release objects. Fertilization: Starfish release their gametes into the ocean, where they mix with the gametes from a starfish of the opposite sex
Early Lives: In the embryonic stage, sea star embryos become part of the zooplankton in the sea. After growing beyond fertilized eggs, the creatures grow into first-stage larve known as bipinnaria. The second-stage larvae are called brachiolaria.
Metamorphosis: When they become large enough, the starfish move to the ocean floor and grow into maturity.
Asexual Reproduction: Some sea stars reproduce asexually by fragmenting off part of an arm that will eventually develop into a completely new sea star. STARFISH
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