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Transcript of Linking Words
-Namely Giving examples
*We discussed training, education and the budget The most common way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance.
Namely refers to something by name.
"There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time." Adding information -And
-As well as
-In addition *to
-Besides *Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas. Giving a reason And: Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item,
but not before and.
Also: is used to add an extra idea or emphasis.
You can use also with not only to give emphasis.
Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making In Addition:If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this.
As well as: can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.
Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to. Examples: *We also spoke about marketing. *We are concerned not only by the costs,
but also by the competition. *As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition. *We are interested in costs
as well as the competition. *They were concerned too. *Marketing plans give us an idea of the
potential market. Moreover, they tell us
about the competition *Besides Rover, we are the largest
sports car manufacturer *Apart from Rover, we are the largest
sports car manufacturer. *In short
*In a nutshell
In conclusion Summarising We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written. *The former, … the latter
*Firstly, secondly, finally
*The first point is
*The following Sequencing ideas *The former and the latter are
useful when you want to refer to
one of two points. *The following is a good way of
starting a list Examples *Marketing and finance are both
covered in the course. The former
is studied in the first term and the
latter is studied in the final term. -It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly".
Instead, try the first point, the second
point, the third point and so on. *The following people have been
chosen to go on the training
course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen. Due to / due to the fact that
Owing to / owing to the fact that
As *Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. *If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that. *Because of is followed by a noun. *Because can be used at the beginning or in the
middle of a sentence. *Since and as mean because. Examples *Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate
rose by 1.25%. *Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation
rate has gone up by 1%25. *Because of bad weather, the football match
was postponed. *We believe in incentive schemes, because we want
our employees to be more productive. *As the company is expanding, we need
to hire more staff. *Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all
items within 2 weeks. *Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on
strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders. *Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff. Giving a result Therefore
This means that
As a result *"The company are expanding. Therefore / So /
Consequently / As a result, they are taking on
extra staff." *Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are
all used in a similar way. *So is more informal. Contrasting ideas But
Although / even though
Despite / despite the fact that
In spite of / in spite of the fact that
In theory… in practice… *But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence. *Although, despite and in spite of introduce an
idea of contrast. With these words, you must
have two halves of a sentence. *Despite and in spite of are used in the same way
as due to and owing to. They must be followed by
a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun
and a verb, you must use the fact that. *Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. *While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other. *In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result. Examples
*He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much. *Despite the fact that the company was
doing badly, they took on extra employees. *The sea was cold, but he went swimming
nevertheless. *While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown. *In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons,
but in practice, they often don't have enough
time. *He works hard, but he doesn't earn much. *Although it was cold, she went out in shorts. *In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts. *Taxes have gone up, whereas social security
contributions have gone down. *Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol. * , "Because it was
raining, the match was postponed