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Autism and Vaccines by Brianna Cheyne
Transcript of Autism and Vaccines by Brianna Cheyne
INVESTIGATION Directed by: BRIANNA CHEYNE MARCH 7TH, 2011: 07:00 HOURS Detective Mathian, I have an urgent case for you! A mother that called my office today is debating whether or not to have her child receive the MMR vaccine. Some say this vaccine causes AUTISM. We need your help! I'm on it! After all, who doesn't love a good mystery? According to a 2009 report, Autism Spectrum Disorder is now recognized as the most common neurological disorder affecting children and one of the most common developmental disabilities in Canada. With only a fragile base of scientific knowledge underlying this disorder, autism remained, and still remains, a mystery to even the most eminent research organizations of the world. As autism, now referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, continues to rise dramatically in diagnosis, a number of unanswered questions about its very nature linger. Some have suggested that vaccines are a cause of ASD. For more information refer to the February1998 edition of The Lancet. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific
colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children
A J Wakefield, S H Murch, A Anthony, J Linnell, D M Casson, M Malik, M Berelowitz, A P Dhillon,
M A Thomson, P Harvey, A Valentine, S E Davies, J A Walker-Smith RETRACTED: SUSPECT: Accused of: fraud and falsification of data. Identity: British former surgeon and medical researcher at the heart of the MMR vaccine/autism controversy ANDREW WAKEFIELD MARCH 7TH, 2011: 08:00 HOURS THE CASE The MMR vaccine leads to gastrointestinal problems that somehow trigger autism. Dr. Andrew Wakefield was called by mother who said that her child was developing normally until having the MMR vaccine
The child "deteriorated" into autism and was suffering from terrible bowel problems.
Similiar cases were brought to his attention and he, and others at the Royal Free Hospital decided to look into it. The question? What are the connections, if any, between vaccines, gastrointestinal problems, and autism? Doesn't seem very suspicious... What went wrong? What's the truth? Hypothesis: The study group only involved 12 children, a very small sample size.
The study involved parental testimonies that described the onset of "regressive autism" in previously normal children days after the MMR vaccine.
The method of having parents recall this information creates bias, which in some cases can change beliefs about casual relationships.
An investigator, Mr. Deer, discovered that each of the 12 cases reported in the Lancet paper was misrepresented in major ways; medical records, diagnoses, and medical histories were altered in order to show that the symptoms of autism arose within two weeks of the MMR vaccination.
3 of the 9 children reported with regressive autism did not have autism at all.
Report claimed that all 12 children were "previously normal", but 5 had documented developmental problems long before the MMR vaccine.
9 of the children's records were altered to say that they had bowel abnormalities when they really did not. THE BACKSTORY Dr. Wakefield had questionable motives. Was on payroll of group that launched lawsuit against manufacturers of MMR vaccine
His research would be centerpiece of thier claim Patented measles that he wanted to replace MMR shot Parents of 11 of the 12 children blamed vaccine for thier children's health problems before they were recruited
All recruited by Richard Barr, the lawyer who hired Dr. Wakefield
Barr sent letters to his clients looking for children with bowel disorders and autism Dr. Wakefield had makings of syndrome he would "discover" two years later & the proof he needed for lawsuit. THE REAL RESEARCH Said that rise in autism in UK and California coincided with introduction of MMR vaccine
Time-event associations are very unlikely to reflect cause-effect relationships Autisitic entero-colitis: hypothesized that MMR vaccine damages the bowel, allowing dietary 'opioid peptides' into the system -> brain damage, regression of development, and autism.
This is not plausible: no evidence for existence of 'opioid peptides' and liver metabolism would remove peptides, which cannot go through the blood-brain barrier Population studies from Sweden, the UK, Finland, and Denmark have shown no relationship between autism and MMR vaccine
Each study robust and consistent
'Rule of three': if there is any direct relationship it could not occur more frequently than 3 cases per 1 million vaccinations 1990s: MMR vaccine withdrawn in Japan and prevalence continued to rise
Rates of autism in UK did not change when measles vaccine was introduced or when Urabe strain of mumps was removed from vaccine No increase in visits to British general practitioners by children subsequently diagnosed with autism in periods of 2 and 6 months after MMR vaccination compared with controls In 2008, measles was declared endemic in England and Wales for the first time in more than a decade. Last May, the General Medical Council found Wakefield guilty of serious professional misconduct and stripped him of his U.K. medical licence. Wakefield continues to speak of the veracity of his research. Until last year, Wakefield worked at an autism research centre that he founded in Texas. Andrew Wakefield's campaign caused a collapse in UK immunisation rates, reversed by Brian Deer's investigation for The Sunday Times of London. Over 25 studies have been conducted to see if there is indeed a relationship between the vaccine and autism; the studies have consistently found no evidence of a link.
The millions of dollars spent on these studies could have been used toward real autism research and intervention. The Lancet, in a brief statement, has now stated that, based on the GMC's findings, "we fully retract this paper from the published record." (The Editors of The Lancet: The Lancet, February 6, 2010) A complete retraction of a medical paper is highly unusual. Hello? ... Alfred, tell the mother that she need not worry about the MMR vaccine. Extensive evidence proves that there is NO link between this vaccine and autism. Another case solved! CONTROVERSIAL STATISTICS INVESTIGATION TUNE IN NEXT WEEK FOR ANOTHER EPISODE OF Brian Deer, investigator Lessons for the Future:
Appropriate/unbiased media coverage
Adherance to the scientific method
Thorough peer review of scientific articles
Lawyers with the intent of doing good and being truthful
Being critical of the validity of information on the Internet MARCH 7TH, 2011: 12:00 HOURS MARCH 7TH, 2011: 14:00 HOURS MARCH 7TH, 2011: 17:00 HOURS Richard Barr, lawyer