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Transcript of Genogram
Development of the Instrument
Can be easily translated for other cultural groups speaking languages other than English.
5.4% African American
0.6% Asian American
0.6% Native American
15% of the participants were currently in therapy
Ease and time of administration
Differentiation of self Inventory
BOWEN Family Systems
This is an paper and pencil instrument
scoring should take 5 to 10 min.
there was not mention of a computer or electronic version of this instrument
Type of Instrument
self paced ( no time limits)
estimated completion time of 10 to 15 min.
answered on a 1 to 6 likert- type scale 1= Not at all true of me - 6= Very true of me
to be used as a part of a routine assessment of families along with a personal interview prior to therapeutic intervention.
to be given and scored by a therapist "with experience in Bowen theory".
No mention of specific discipline or licensure requirements.
By Mark McFaul
Kerr, M.E., & Bowen, M. (1988). Family evaluation. New York: Norton
Skowron, E. A. (2004) Differentiation of self, adjustment, problems solving , and ethnic belonging among persons of color. Journal of Counseling and Development. 82, 319-328
Skowron, E. A., Friedlander, M. L. (1998). The differentiation of Self Inventory: Development and initial validation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 235-246. doi: 10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.199.
Skowron, E. A., Schmitt, T. A. ( 2003). Assessing interpersonal fusion: Reliability and validity of a new DSI fusion with others subscale. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 29, 209-222. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1752-0606.2003.tb01201.x.
Differentiation of Self Inventory - Revised (DSI-R)
Elizabeth A. Skowron & Myrna L. Friedlander
Elizabeth A. Skowron & Thomas A Schmitt
To be used with:
Children (14-18 years old)
Male and Female
Diverse ethnic groups
Two page instrument
can be used during counseling session or before
the DSI-R is less sensitive
no manual available (know Bowen theory)
the DSI was more culturally and gender sensitivity
self-report inventory (test results do not closely reflect therapist's interview results should be re-examined)
scoring and interpretation can be complicated
this is a "B" level assessment (the administer of the instrument should score and interpenetrate the assessment)
gender and cultural controversies are evaluated
Test re-test reliability
strong multidimensional constructs
DSI shows strong psychometric rigor except for the Fusion with Others (FO) sub scale. DSI-R compensated for the FO sub scale weakness
Strong overall instrument
Construct validity is high on the DSI-R, Content validity was correlated with several validated instruments including : Discord Assessment Scale (DAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, as well as Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire (PAFS), and Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory (ECR).
Availability and Source
Copies are free research purposes, counselor use (this instrument is copy wright protected)
located in Appendix of Skowron & Schmitt 2003 "Assessing interpersonal fusion"
Tuason and Friedlander (2000) Found support for the cross-cultural applicability of Bowen theory in a sample of 306 Filipino adults, Specifically, theoretically expected links were observed between greater differentiation scores and low anxiety and general symptomatically scores.
Emotional Reactivity (ER) or (i)
I Position (IP) or (ii)
Emotional Cutoff (EC) or (iii)
Fusion with Others (FO) or (iv)
(ER) emotionally reactive person tends to find it difficult to remain calm in responses to emotionality of others, (PI) Maintaining a clearly defined sense of self and thoughtfully adhering to personal convictions when pressured by others to do otherwise, (FO) Have few firmly held convictions and beliefs, are either dogmatic or compliant, and seek acceptance and approval above all other goals, (EC) Personified by the reactive emotional distance, who appears aloof and isolated from others and tends to deny the importance of family.
??? QUESTIONS ???
45% had sought therapy in the past (DSI)
86.6% European American
1.8% African American
0.8% Asian American/ Pacific Islander
1.3% Native American
Quick assessment, good with interview and assessment with client, could be used for followup assessment, can help clients see/verify/or question strengths and weakness within the family system.
Does not have a manual, Licenses or credentials are not required, There is no determined scale for the values recorded, has not been validated for specific Axis I or Axis II disorders.
Demonstration Use of Instrument: