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LING472.SP18.LanguageVaritiesOverview.01/30/18

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Melissa Maceyko

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Transcript of LING472.SP18.LanguageVaritiesOverview.01/30/18

Questions?
Language Discrimination: Accents


1. Consider a moment in which you were labeled by your accent, or in which you labeled someone else by their accent. Where? When? Why?
Accent
disputed/non-technical definitions;
pitch/stress distinctions;
differences in phonological and intonation features of a given language variety;
L1-L2 phonology transfer

Accent Discrimination
discrimination based on accent, especially given the indexical connections between accent and identity AND/OR competence
Language-Trait-Focused (LTF) discrmination

standard Language (SL) Ideology
bias toward abstract, idealized, homogenous spoken language variety;
imposed from above
model=written language
Terms

Local Expectations
Briggs (1984) "Learning How to Ask"
1. Think through your last school or job interview. How did you prepare? If possible, reflect on a "bad" interview? What went wrong? Be specific about problems with content, and try to comment on other aspects of the interaction (e.g. pausing, silence, eye contact, volume).

2. What is Campbell and Roberts' argument about the use of institutional and personal discourses in successful job interviews? Does their argument seem compelling to you? Why or why not?

For Thursday 06/22
Before Class Read/Print
Piller. "Intercultural Communication for Sale." p.96-109
Freedman and Jurafsky. "Authenticity in America: Potato Chip Ads." (2011).p. 46-54
Before you read...
Do a brief comparison of potato chip bags at your local grocery or convenience store. Do you notice any differences between brand advertisements?
Print for In-Class
Romaniuk. "On the Relevance of Gender: The Clinton Cackle" (2016) EXCERPT TBD.

*Also Bring either pics of chip bags compared or actual bags*
Assignments
Day 1: Definitions
What is Language?
What is Communication?
What is Culture?
What is Cross-Cultural Communication?
Day 2: Approaches To Study
Focus: Pragmatics and Communicative Competence
Speech Act Theory
Gricean Maxims
Ethnography of Communication
Applications: Greetings
Review
Day 3: Acquisition of Communicative Competence
Review of EOC: Greetings in the Desert
Language Socialization
First Language Acquisition
Communicative Competence
Language and Perception
Linguistic Relativity
(Metaphor and Reality)
Day 4: Expectations for Politeness, Gender, Power
Finish Discussion of Metaphor/Reality
Politeness
Theories of Politeness
Gender and Language and Politeness
Power and Assertiveness and Politeness (O'Barr and Atkins)
Cross-Cultural Mis-communication and Expectations for Politeness (Bailey)
Overview
Day 7: Language in the Workplace
Access, Commodities, Discrimination
Language Discrimination in the Workplace
U.S. Accents
Cross-Cultural Pragmatics
U.K. Genres
Language as Commodity
U.S. Call Centers
Pakistan: Call Centers

For Tuesday 06/20
Before Class Read/Print
Lippi-Green. "Discriminatory Pretext in Courts" (1994) p.163-166; 171-178; 184-188
Campbell and Roberts. "Competing Discourses in the Job Interview." (2007) p.243-259; p.266-267
Before you read...
1. Consider a moment in which you were labeled by your accent, or in which you labeled someone else by their accent. Where? When? Why?
2. Think through your last school or job interview. How did you prepare? If possible, reflect on a "bad" interview? What went wrong?
Print for In-Class
Briggs. "Learning How to Ask" (1984) p. 19-22
Heller. "Commodification of Language" (2010) p.101-103
Rahman. "Call Centers in Pakistan." (2009) p.233-243.
RACIALIZATION
ETHNICITY
GENDER
CLASS
CONTEXT
CONTEXT
LANGUAGE
RACEIALIZATION
GENDER
ETHNICITY
CLASS
Day 5: Multilingualism, Identity, National Belonging
Language and National Belonging
Attitudes and Policies: U.S.
Attitudes and Policies: India
Consequences: Language and Asylum
Language Contact and Language Change in Multilingual Communities
Terms and Mechanics
Global English / Englishes

Communication in the Workplace: U.S.
Language, Accent, Job Performance?
Violating Civil Liberties v. Appropriate Business Decisions
Understanding "Good" Communication
Responsibilities of Speaker v. Responsibilities of Listener
Understanding Implicit Biases
More and Less Conscious Associations between Speakers and Professions
More and Less Conscious Personal Preferences for Hiring Applicants "Like Me"
On Linguistics and Law
"It seems that linguistics and LTF Discrimination have yet to meet their Scopes Trial" (LG: 191)

Anthropological Interview Techniques
Role of Elders:
Repetition of Words of Elders
"A person who lacks patience, who wants to absorb a topic immediately and believes they can be an expert shortly thereafter will not gain competence" (Briggs 1984: 4)
Q/A Sequences
Referential Frames
Conversational Structure
Questions and presupposition of basic knowledge and knowledge dissemination
Role of Elders:
Repetition of Words of Elders
"A person who lacks patience, who wants to absorb a topic immediately and believes they can be an expert shortly thereafter will not gain competence" (Briggs 1984: 4)
Q/A Sequences
Referential Frames
Conversational Structure
Questions and presupposition of basic knowledge and knowledge dissemination
"One's consultants are not obligated to repair the procedural problem, answer the question, and give the turn back to the questioner...it is far more appropriate...to signal to them the failure of their efforts to assume a sophisticated communicative role" (Briggs 1984: 22)

Institutional Discourses
Campbell and Roberts (2007)
Personal Discourses
common cultural stock of knowledge about what behavior is appropriate and worthy of praise in these contexts (247).

presentation of self through discourses related to family and education, rather than work (249).
Takeaways

1. Job Interview as Ritual
2. Register: "Job Interview English"
3. "ideal employee" (246)
4. "Belonging requires a specific set of discursive skills and a particular kind of subjectivity which includes an ability...to align motivations and values with those of the organization" (267)
5. Migrant workers in GB most often considered untrustworthy or unprofessional; therefore, culturally bound expectations
What is Campbell and Roberts' argument about the use of institutional and personal discourses in successful job interviews? Does their argument seem compelling to you? Why or why not?
Assignment #2 Due
Day 5: Language, Identity, Power: Social and Regional Belonging
Review Language, Identity, Power, Code Switch: Global
Language, Identity, Power, Code Switch: U.S.
Dialects of American English
Regional VAriation
Social Variation
Class, Race, Gender, Ethnicity
Intersectionality and Communities of Practice

Language and Social Justice

What do we mean by social justice?
How will we define and study language?
How will we consider the relationship between language and social justice?
What are the impacts of language-based discrimination and disadvantage?

Review: Piller on Social Justice?

What is the understanding of social justice adopted by Piller for the purpose of this text?
Economic Redistribution
Cultural Recognition
Political Representation
(Relationship between linguistic diversity and inequalities across these domains)

According to the UN, what are the "key domains" where social justice policies are needed to "redress social injustice" (Piller: 7)?
Work; Education and Knowledge; Health Services; Social Security; Environment; Civic and Political Participation

Language Varieties: Terminology
Language Variety
Any form of language characterized by systematic features.
Accent
Systematic phonological variation.
Dialect
Variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences from other varieties of the same language in terms of structural or lexical features. Every person speaks a dialect.
NOT only differences in pronunciation or uses of slang.
Language
Variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences in terms of structural or lexical features.
Mutual intelligibility? Dialect continuum?
A language is a dialect with an army and a navy?
Style
Culturally specific linguistic repertoire associated with particular social practices and persons who engage in such practices (Ahearn 123). (e.g. geek speak). Formality--may also be referred to as "
register.
"

Moving Between Varieties = Code Switching
Attitudes About Language Varieties: Terminology

Use of one variety over another (more/less consciously) often linked to...

(Perceived) Identity of Speaker/Audience

Language Attitudes
How is the language variety characterized? How are speakers of that variety viewed? By who?
Language Ideologies
Attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or theories about language loaded with moral and political interests

Speech Accommodation
Aligning (or not) with the language variety of another. More/less conscious.
Based on feelings of social closeness or distance from other speakers.
Metalinguistic Awareness
One's awareness of their own language use and the language use, or preferred language use, of others.
Review
Today
www.languageonthemove.org
Levels of Variation
Levels of Variation
What is a feature that you mark as "incorrect" when you use it or see/hear it used in one of the language varieties that you speak? Why does it bug you?

Compare your responses in the previous exercises with your classmates. List some of the factors that may influence the choice of one form over the others.
Language Varieties Qs
Chapter 1:
Things Linguists Agree On (vs.)
Folk Linguistic Beliefs and Attitudes
"The least disputed issues around language structure and function...are those which are most often challenged by non-linguists" (LG 7)
All spoken languages change over time
All spoken languages are equal in terms of linguistic potential
Grammaticality and communicative effectiveness are distinct and independent issues
Written languages and spoken languages are historically, structurally, and functionally different creatures
Variation is intrinsic to all spoken languages at all levels, and much of that variation serves an emblematic purpose
Attitudes about Language Variation
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