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Copy of HDFS 4370

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Kimberley Stewart

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of HDFS 4370

Parental Suicide By: Bethany Schmucker, Blake Gooch,
Kimberley Stewart, Mary Howard,
Molly Baatz, and Tyler Edwards CREATIVE PORTION The Aftermath of Parental Suicide for Children
By: Shepard and Barraclough Childhood Psychosocial Adjustment to Parental Suicide: A Review of Recent Research and Implications for the Future
By: Theresa Bui The Impact of Parental Suicide on Child and Adolescent Offspring
By: Brent and Wilcox Hypothesis The researchers believed that current attachment theories, the bonding level between parent and child, will explain their disposition on the death of their parent. This disposition can increase or decrease the chances of that child committing suicide like their deceased parent.
Suicide will cause the children to suffer from changes in their health, behavior and psychological states, plus their ability to function will be affected as well. Sample 18 parents, 5 moms and 13 dads, committed suicide.
36 children, 14 boys and 22 girls, were left with their surviving parent.
Children, 2 to 17 years of age.
The researchers compared their results with a control group of 33 parents, 14 moms and 19 dads, and their 61 children, 36 boys and 25 girls.
The ages for these children were in the same age range, 2 to 17 years old. Main Result If the child was separated from the deceased parents, through a divorce for example, before their death, that child was more likely to suffer from emotional detachment because the bond between parent and child is weaker. Other Results Health:
Some children experienced symptoms such as: “Excessive crying, self –blame, anxiety & clinging, disturbed sleep, and head banging” (Barraclough &Shepherd, 1976, p.270).
There has NOT been suicide attempts, but one of the children has threatened to take their own life. Behavior Problems:
There was some child delinquents, but most of these children did not participate in these activities. There wasn’t a lot because majority of the children were at or beyond the age of “criminal responsibility” (Barraclough &Shepherd, 1976, p.270). Psychological Effects:
Anxiety was view more in the children, and they became anxiousSome seemed to be in a constant state of sorrow 50% of the children cried, while the other 50% did not cry, and the ones that cried more often were the older children. ABC-X Model Stressor: Unhappy marriage, alcoholic parent, one of the parents suffering from depression, one of the parents have an abnormal personality, etc

Existing Resources: Alcohol (for parents addicted to it), medicine for people with depression or certain anxiety states, etc.

Perception: The family looks or seems unstable. It’s not always a great environment for the children

Crisis: The mother or the father of these children commits suicide Multiple Choice Questions 1.Based on the presentation, which of the symptoms were NOT expressed by children after their parent’s suicide?
a.Excessive Crying
b.Cutting
c.Head banging
d.Self-Blame

2.The death of a parent affects which part of a child’s life?
a.Health
b.Behavior
c.Psychological
d.All of the above Answers 1.Based on the presentation, which of the symptoms were NOT expressed by children after their parent’s suicide?
a.Excessive Crying
b.Cutting
c.Head banging
d.Self-Blame

2.The death of a parent affects which part of a child’s life?
a.Health
b.Behavior
c.Psychological
d.All of the above Study #1 Overall Summary-This studied looked at the correlation between the psychiatric symptoms of the suicide bereaved parent’s and the psychiatric symptoms and social adjustment of their children.

Sample-16 families with 22 children were gathered through referrals. Racial distribution included 12 white and 4 African American and Hispanic families.

Method-The researchers used 5 semi-structured interview and questionnaires with the children and questionnaires were also given to the parents to gather information regarding their child’s psychosocial adjustment.

Results- The children’s psychosocial maladjustment was connected with the environmental issues. SBC experienced anxiety and environmental distress before and after parental suicide. SBC’s experienced high rates of internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, post traumatic stress, and considerable social maladjustment. Study #2 Overall Summary- This study examined SBC’s and non-SBC’s reactions of grief, psychiatric symptoms which arose, and psychosocial functioning following parental death.

Sample- 26 SBC from 15 families and 332 non-SBC’s. No differences in age, gender, and race between these non-SBC and SBC participants, and the sample was mostly white.

Method- Questionnaires, open-ended and semi-structured questions

Results- Effect of death was more severe for SBC’s than non-SBC’s. SBC’s tended to have more long-term adjustment problems, yet both shared similar grief reactions. SBC’s were less likely to accept relieve or acceptance after 1-2 years following the parental death. SBC’s experienced anger anxiety and then anger following the suicide. Study #3 Overall Summary- This was a follow-up study of study #2. This study focused on family functioning before and after the death and changes in social support.

Sample- The same SBC and non-SBC families from study #2 were compared.

Method- Researchers place all families into one of three categories: #1 Functional families with no preexisting conflict, #2 chaotic families with turmoil prior to the suicide, or #3 encapsulated pathology families where the deceased had psychological conflict but the family did not.

Results-SBC were less likely than non-SBC to experience psychosocial stressors following the death, which lead the researchers to believe that the suicide bereaved families faced many stressors due to the deceased's lifestyle, and when they passed, these issues also passed. Study #4 Overall Summary- Was interested in seeing if gender differences occur in grieving over a parents death. Looked at the clinical distress associated with the loss of a parent for SBC's and non-SBC's

Sample- 80 children, ranging in age from 9 to 16 years and were compared with 45 non-bereaved children. The bereaved children were recruited through: hospitals, assistant programs, self-referrals, obituaries, and other various documents.

Method- Self-reports

Results- There were no significant differences found because of age or race. However, there were differences found due to gender on externalizing scores. Study found that there was a higher occurrence of SBC's guardians reporting that there was psychological symptomatology or behavioral problems in those children. Overall Overall Summary -This article was a review of recent research regarding children's adjustment to parental suicide. Four studies were compiled into this research paper. All four studies researched these children's adjustment to school, family life, and psychopathology.

Overall Methods-Most used interviews, both structured and semi-structured, and questionnaires. Only one used self-reports.

There was no hypothesis to be found due to the fact that this article was comparing studies not actually finding its own results to make a hypothesis from.

Overall Results- The conclusion drawn from these four studies shows that following the suicide of their parent, children experience: high levels of anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress. All studies concluded that Suicide-Bereaved Children were at increased risk for some psychological disorder: anxiety, depression, externalizing, or internalizing their grief. There was evidence in some studies that these children also encountered psychosocial maladjustment. These children face social difficulties in peer relations, school behavior, and self-esteem. They found that a child's grieving process goes through the following phases: disorganization, working through emotions, and reorganization while working towards “mastery” of the trauma and loss.

There were some differences among the studies along with the similarities. In the studies, girls scored higher levels in externalizing their grief. ABC-X Model Stressor: Parental Suicide

Existing Resources: Other family members, going to clinicians or psychiatrists

Perceptions: Members recognize children need time to grieve, children blame themselves

Crisis: Suicide Attempts, anxiety, anger, shame, increased behavior problems, depression Multiple Choice Questions All four studies conclude that Suicide-Bereaved Children were at _________ risk for developing some form of psychological disorder: anxiety, depression, externalizing, or internalizing grief.

A. Decreased

B.No

C.Increased

D.Not Concluded in Article Hypothesis This study wanted to look at the psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes of children who experienced parental suicide and determine what kind of association, if any, existed. Sample The sample obtained from these studies ranged in age from two years old to adulthood, at the time of assessment, which could have occurred weeks to years after the suicide. There were a total of 730 suicide survivors in these studies, which were obtained from clinical and community settings. Results This meta-analysis concluded that there are not many short-term differences in children and adolescents who experience the suicide of a parent.
Some may feel a higher degree of shame, anxiety, anger, or depressive symptoms, but generally no significant effects on psychological functioning are found.
However, experiencing the suicide of a parent may increase the risk of suicide or bipolar disorder for the child themselves. This risk increases when the child is young at the occurrence of the suicide or when it is the mother committing suicide.
Additionally, one study found some long-term effects. Those included the inability to share feelings, anger, guilt, social stigma, fears of own suicide, and a need for success to make up for parent’s death. To Note The authors note that these findings may not be exclusively from experiencing a parental suicide. The functioning of the family and level of support the child receives before and after the suicide may also contribute. Also important is that suicide causes the disruption of the child’s normal life, which could lead to pathological development. The context of suicide should be considered as well, due to genetic factors or consequences of the suicide. ABC-X Model Stressor: Parental suicide



Resources: Surviving parent or other siblings and family members , family environment

Perception: Child and family members feeling grief



Crisis: Depression, post traumatic stress disorder, future suicide attempts Multiple Choice Questions What would an outcome of parental suicide (crisis) be?

A. Family Support
B. Counseling
C. Depression
D. Happiness

Which of the following most increases a child's risk for suicide or bipolar disorder?

A. Being a teenager at the time of parent's suicide
B. Being a teenager at the time they are interviewed about parent's suicide

C. Their mother commits suicide
D. Their father commits suicide Answers What would an outcome of parental suicide (crisis) be?

A. Family Support
B. Counseling
C. Depression
D. Happiness

Which of the following most increases a child's risk for suicide or bipolar disorder?

A. Being a teenager at the time of parent's suicide
B. Being a teenager at the time they are interviewed about parent's suicide
C. Their mother commits suicide
D. Their father commits suicide Answers All four studies conclude that Suicide-Bereaved Children were at _________ risk for developing some form of psychological disorder: anxiety, depression, externalizing, or internalizing grief.

A. Decreased

B.No

C.Increased

D.Not Concluded in Article
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