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Human Sexuality In A World of Diversity- Chapter 1

Human Sexuality Course
by

Kevin Hylton

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Human Sexuality In A World of Diversity- Chapter 1

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Evolution: the development of a species to its present state

Natural selection: The evolutionary process by which adaptive traits enable members of a species to survive to reproductive age and transmit these traits to future generations

Evolutionary psychologists suggest that there is a genetic basis to social behavior, including human sexual behavior
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gay activism:
Arose during the sexual revolution
AIDS education, prevention, and treatment

Sex research:
Sexually explicit questionnaires
Masters & Johnson laboratory research
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Sexuality was repressed
Not discussed in public
Women thought to have no sexual feelings
Men thought to be drained of health & vitality by sex
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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The Islamic tradition values marriage and sexual fulfillment in marriage only
Only men may have more than one spouse
Social interactions between men and women restricted



Hinduism views sex as a religious duty
Sexual fulfillment can lead to reincarnation at a higher level
Kama Sutra
Perspectives on Human Sexuality

Places sexual behavior and attitudes in context

Allows consideration of trends in sexual behaviors and attitudes

Historical analyses show little evidence of universal sexual behaviors and customs

Religion has played a major role
Perspectives on Human Sexuality

Scrutinizing definitions of terms and evaluating the premises of arguments and their logic
Being skeptical
Examine definitions
Examine assumptions or premises of arguments
Be cautious about drawing conclusions
Consider alternative interpretations of research
Consider the kinds of evidence upon which conclusions are based
Do not oversimplify
Do not overgeneralize

Critical Thinkers
Maintain open minds
Suspend beliefs until they have obtained and evaluated the evidence
Critical Thinking?


Legalism – moral laws from an external source

Situational Ethics – decision making is context-dependent and rules are flexible

Ethical Relativism – no one correct moral view, but rather diversity in beliefs is considered natural and based upon culture

Hedonism – decisions based on pursuing pleasure

Asceticism – self-denial of desires

Utilitarianism – decisions based on bringing about the most good and avoiding harm

Rationalism – use of intellect and reasoning
What Is Human Sexuality?

Pluralistic society embraces wide range of sexual attitudes and values

Values influence sexual attitudes & behavior

Values: the qualities in life that are deemed important or unimportant, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable
What Is Human Sexuality?
What is Sex?
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Behaviorists:
Focus on the effects of rewards and punishment on behavior

Cognitive Views:
Emphasize cognitive activity (problem solving, expectations, decision making, etc.)

Social-Cognitive theory:
Learn by observation and reinforcement
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Psychoanalytic Perspective (Freud):
Erogenous zones
Parts of the body, including but not limited to the sex organs, that are responsive to sexual stimulation.

Psychosexual development:
Children progress through stages focused on different erogenous zones and conflicts.
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Fixation, or arrested development, is possible at each stage.
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Biological sex drives controlled by society
Conscious and unconscious mind
The conflicting personality structures of the id, ego, superego
Dream analysis to reveal unconscious ideas and impulses
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Psychological influences on that affect our sexual behavior and our experience of being male or female, e.g.
Perception
Learning
Motivation
Emotion
Personality
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Examine effect of cultural institutions and beliefs on sexual behavior and attitudes.

Societies differ widely in sexual attitudes, practices, customs, e.g.
- Marriage
- Sex partners
- Masturbation
- Kissing
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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1. Erotic plasticity


2. Altruism


3. Sex partners
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Studies role of genes, hormones, the nervous system, and other biological factors in sexuality
Mechanisms of arousal and reproduction
Overcoming sexual and fertility problems
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Recent trends:
More teens sexually active
Teens are becoming sexually active at younger ages
Female sexuality is accepted
Sex is discussed openly
Pornography commonplace
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Foundations of the Scientific Study of Sexuality:

Began during the Victorian Era
Sexologists gained credence
- Havelock Ellis
- Richard von Krafft-Ebing
- Sigmund Freud
- Alfred Kinsey
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Coming to America:
Early settlers brought Western views
Each religion stressed ideals of family life and that sex outside of marriage was immoral
Women’s place was in the home and fields
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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The Protestant Reformation:
Priests allowed to marry and rear children
Sex not just for procreation
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Temptations of flesh distractions from spiritual devotion

Sex was restricted to marriage and was for procreation and not for pleasure. Lust made sexual expression inherently evil

Masturbation, prostitution, same-sex sexual relations, oral-genital contact, and anal intercourse were strictly forbidden and viewed as sinful

Divorce was outlawed
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Elites practiced sexual excesses, such as orgies, bestiality, and sadism

The family was seen as the source of integrity of the Roman empire and male-male sexual behavior was met with disapproval

Women considered husbands’ property

Sexual terms still in use have Roman cultural roots including:
Fellatio, Cunnilingus, and Fornication
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Valued family life
Admired male body of muscle and health
Gods viewed as sexually adventurous
Viewed men and women as bisexual
Male-male sex was considered normal as long as it did not interfere with the family
- Pederasty, or love of boys, by older men was condoned as long as the boy was not prepubescent
Prostitution was very popular
- Courtesans: prostitutes, usually the mistress of a noble or wealthy man
- Concubines: a secondary wife, usually of lower status
Women held low social status
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Emphasized procreative function of sex
Same-sex sexual relations were strongly condemned.
Adultery was not allowed, at least for women.
Polygamy, the practice of having two or more spouses (wives) at the same time, was permitted.
However, most Hebrews were monogamous.
Sex strengthened marriage and solidified family
Minimum frequency of relations within marriage legislated
Women considered property of men
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
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Female idolatry
Phallic worship
Penis viewed as symbol of power (Phallic symbols)
Incest taboo
- The prohibition against intercourse and reproduction among close blood relatives
- Present in some form in all human societies
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Sources of values for decision making:
Parents
Peers
Religious doctrines
Ethnicity
Mainstream culture
The appraisal of these sources
What Is Human Sexuality?
What Is Human Sexuality?
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Anatomic sex of male or female
Anatomic structures
Behaviors
Feelings and desires
Sex vs. Gender
What Is Human Sexuality?
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Necessary given the complexity and range of human sexual behavior
Each has something to offer
Adds to the richness of our understanding

Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Theory of the psychology and sociology of gender roles and sexual orientation
Challenges heterosexist assumptions
Asserts sexuality is more varied than those in power want to believe
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Challenges such traditional views as
Men as breadwinners, women as homemakers
Men as political policymakers
Men as sexual “aggressors” and women as sexual “gatekeepers”
Men as objective, rational beings and women as emotional, irrational creatures

Asserts men have no right to control a women’s body
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Sexual Revolution:

During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s sexual attitudes and behaviors became more liberal

Forces that brought about the revolution include
The Vietnam War
The fear of the nuclear bomb
The birth-control pill
The mass media
Perspectives on Human Sexuality
Our experiences and our expressions of ourselves as sexual beings, which are affected by our culture
Human sexuality refers to:
Sexuality and Values
Value Systems:
The Historical Perspective
The Historical Perspective- Prehistoric Sexuality
The Historical Perspective
The Historical Perspective
The Ancient Greeks:
The Historical Perspective
The Ancient Romans:
The Ancient Hebrews:
The Historical Perspective
The Early Christians:
The Historical Perspective
Islam:
India:
Far East:
Taoism (China) – sex is a form of worship that leads to harmony with nature, as well as immortality
The Historical Perspective
The Middle Ages:
Conflicting views of women:
Sinful, as Eve
Saintly, as Mary – this view elevated women’s status
The Historical Perspective
The Historical Perspective
The Victorian Era:
Despite these prohibitions, prostitution was quite common.
The Historical Perspective
The Historical Perspectives
Discussion and portrayals of sexuality accepted & commonplace
The Historical Perspective
The Historical Perspective
The Biological Perspective:
The Evolutionary Perspective
The Evolutionary Perspective
The Sociological Perspective
Psychological Perspectives
Psychological Perspectives
Psychological Perspectives
Psychological Perspectives
Learning Theories:
Feminist Theory
Queer Theory
Multiple Perspectives
Psychoanalytic Perspective (Sigmund Freud)
Learning Objectives
Sex and all physical relations are something we create, they are cultural forms, not biological. Most often, however, we do not think of ourselves as free to explore and discover or invent whatever kinds of varied physical relations we might want, or which might seem natural to us at any given time, corresponding to our own individual feelings and needs. Instead we tend to act as if there were one set formula for having intimate physical contact with other people.
-Sherry Hite-
Human Sexuality
Define human sexuality.

Describe the contributions made by the many disciplines to the study of human sexuality.

Discuss the role of various value systems in making “rational” sexual choices.

List the characteristics of critical thinking how it can be applied to the study of human sexuality.

Identify the characteristic sexual attitudes and practices of the historical eras .

Relate how the origins of contemporary sexual attitudes and behaviors can be traced to earlier eras.

Explain the foundations and recent history of sexuality as a “legitimate” area of scientific study.

Explain various theoretical perspective and several learning theories of human sexual behavior.



Sex can refer to:
The study of human sexuality is interdisciplinary:

Anthropology: cultural differences & similarities

Biology: physiology of arousal & response

Psychology: formation of sexual behavior & attitudes

Sociology: relations between sexuality and demographic categories (race, religion, SES, etc.)
The Science of Human Sexuality

Requires an
Interdisciplinary
approach

The Science of Human Sexuality

Sources and Influences

Sexuality and Values

Sexuality and Values

Sexuality and Values

Sexuality and Values

Thinking Critically

Thinking Critically

Critical Thinkers

Historical Perspective on Human Sexuality

Prehistoric Sexuality

Historical Perspective on Human Sexuality

Historical Perspective on Human Sexuality

Historical Perspective on Human Sexuality


Sexual relationships develop within a social context that establishes:

What sexual relationships mean

How they are conducted

What social supports are given to sexual relationships

Sexuality is socially defined and patterned.

Sex and Culture
Human sexual attitudes and behavior vary in different cultural contexts.

Sexual attitudes and behavior change over time.

Sexual identity is learned.

Social institutions channel and direct human sexuality.

Sex is influenced by economic forces in society.

Public policies regulate sexual and reproductive behaviors.

Social and Cultural Basis of Sexuality
Functionalism

Learned through socialization into roles
Support consensus in society

Conflict Theory

Enforced through the power of dominant groups and institutions
Defined by most powerful groups in society

Symbolic
Interaction

Emerges through social relationships
Defined through symbolic systems, such as the media

Sociological Theories
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