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What is Public Speaking?

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Katie Baccile

on 24 January 2016

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Transcript of What is Public Speaking?

Managing Speech Anxiety
Communication Anxiety - Those unpleasant feelings and fears you may experience before or during your presentation.
What causes communication anxiety?
A. Lack of experience can contribute to high anxiety levels, especially considering the natural anticipation that results from new experiences.
B. Feeling different from others, and being overly sensitive to these perceived differences, can increase speaking anxiety.
C. Being the center of attention, and thus feeling conspicuous, can cause a speaker to focus on the “me,” thereby increasing sensitivity and anxiety.
Understanding CA:
* On the day of your first presentation you sit waiting for your turn to speak. You can't really listen to the speeches before yours because you feel miserable. You hear your name called. Your stomach drops. Your hands start to sweat. Your heart races. Your ears feel hot. Your mouth feels dry. You plod to the podium and look up at the audience. Your knees start to shake. You grab the lectern for support.
Managing Your CA
Engage in Reality Testing - think about what has happened in the past, what is the worst thing that actually might happen and how bad would it be if it did happen. Subject the negative messages you have in your head to rational scrutiny.
Selective Relaxation - practicing muscle control techniques to help you reduce physical tension by relaxing on cue.
Attitude Adjustment - don't focus on all the things that may or may not happen to you, but instead focus on your message and what you are saying to the audience.
Cognitive Restructuring - replacing negative thoughts with positive, constructive ones.
Preparing and practicing build confidence. Knowing that you are adequately prepared allows you to feel confident and secure that you will not forget what you wish to say.
Visualization, or mentally seeing yourself give a successful speech, will build confidence.
10 Ways to Control Anxiety
1. Select a topic that excites you
2. Carefully research and organize your message
3. Master your topic so you can speak with authority
4. Practice your presentation until it flows smoothly
5. Focus on communicating with your audience
6. Learn how to relax on cue
7. Think positively
8. Visualize success
9. Act confident even if you aren't
10. Take advantage of other opportunities to speak in public
SPEECH PREPARATION
Ethos - the impressions that listeners begin to form as you speak that influence how they respond to your message.
Competence
A well-informed, intelligent, and well prepared speaker.
Integrity
A speaker needs to be honest, ethical, and dependable.
Goodwill
A speaker who has the interests of others at heart.
Dynamism
The perception of a speaker as confident, decisive, and enthusiastic.
Components of Ethos
Build your competence by
- selecting a topic you know something about
- do some research
- quote experts and cite authorities
- present all sides of an issue and explain why you have chosen your position.
- Smile
- Use eye contact
- Share feelings as well as thoughts
- Talk openly and naturally
- Don't be afraid of laughter
Major Steps in Speech Preparation
1. Find the right topic
- pick something you find interesting and something your audience finds interesting too
2. Focus on your topic
- have a clear idea of what you want to accomplish
- you should be able to state the essence of your speech in a single, simple sentence
3. Gather materials
- use narratives
- use examples
- research to find testimony, facts, and statistics
4. Design your speech
* Introduction, Body, Conclusion, Transitions
- Intro: build a relationship between you and your audience
- Body: includes the most important ideas in your message
- Conclusion: summarize main points and end with reflections on the meaning of the speech
- Transitions: help you move from one point to another
5. Outline
6. Practice, Practice, Practice
Presenting Your Speech
* An effective presentation should sound natural and conversational
* Practice your pitch - the placement of your voice on a scale ranging from low and deep to high and shrill.
* Take rate into consideration. Sometimes you may need a slower pace and at other times it might need to be a little faster. Don't forget to pause when you want to put emphasis on something. Typical rate = 125 words per minute.
* Loudness - don't be too quiet or too loud. Vary your loudness to express emotion.
* Variety is key: vary your pitch, rate and loudness.
*Things to keep in mind:
- Articulation
- Enunciation
- Pronunciation
- Dialect
Body Language
Make frequent Eye Contact
Smile
Make natural gestures
Dress appropriately
Pay attention to the audience!
- Watch for puzzled expressions
- Watch for bored listeners; people wiggling in their seats, drumming their fingers, or having a glazed look.
Ceremonial Speeches
Types of Ceremonial Speeches
1. Speech of Introduction
2. Award Presentations
3. Acceptance Speeches
4. Commemorative Speeches (tributes, toasts, eulogy)
5. After-Dinner Speech
Organization of Special Occasion Speeches
1. Introduction - include something that evokes the common values or feelings that have brought your audience together.
- May need to establish your credibility
- Clearly state the purpose of your remarks and preview main points
2. Body - concentrate especially on making your main points clear and on supporting them with a variety of entertaining and even inspiring materials
3. Conclusion- refocuses audience interest not simply on the presentation but on who the listeners are and what they stand for
Use of Narrative Example - Ashlie McMillan told the inspiring story of her cousin Tina's accomplishments as a dwarf. In her introduction, she asked listeners to close their eyes and imagine themselves shrinking to help them identify more closely with the challenges Tina faced on a daily basis. This identification prepared the audience to accept Ashlie's eloquent conclusion: "You too may seem too short to grasp your stars, but you never know haw far you might reach if you stand upon a dream."
2. Recognition of Heroes and Heroines - invoke the words and deeds of heroes and heroines as role models.
3. Renewal of Group Commitment - share with your listeners a vision of what the future can be like if their commitment continues. Renew their identity as a group moving toward even greater goals.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Abraham Lincoln
November 19, 1863

2. Magnification - when the speaker selects and emphasizes certain qualities of a subject to stress the values they represent. It focuses attention on what is relevant, honorable, and praiseworthy.
* Magnification relies on effective uses of language to create dramatic word-pictures.
- Us of metaphor and simile
- Repetition of key words and phrases
Strategies to Magnify a Person or Accomplishment
- Show how people have overcome obstacle to success
- Point out how unusual the accomplishments are
- Emphasize unselfish motives behind the achievement
- Show how listeners and society as a whole have benefited
Types of Ceremonial Speeches
1. The Speech of Tribute - renews the kinship between speaker audience while recognizing the occasion
- They generally honor an individual, organization, or occasion while commending the audience's shared history or revered heroes
Ex) "I have a dream" speech
2. Toasts
- guest have paused to hear inspired words, so avoid cliches
Award Presentations
- The name of the award and the reason it is being given
- The name of the winner and his or her reason for winning
- The reason you are glad to present the award
- The more your remarks identify the recipient as unique, the more the audience will recognize the award as a personal distinction for the winner.
- Effective awards should also provide generous praise, be personal with a "real life" story, be sincere, and be inspirational
Eulogy Speeches
- Tell how much they meant to you
- Provide words of comfort to console people in the future
- Share stories that highlight the humanity of the person
- Focus on how wonderful it was to have that person in your life
- Focus on the meaning of the person's life

Toasts
- Make them brief
- Add some humor
Acceptance Speech
- Express gratitude
- Focus on the values the award represents
- Use language that matches the dignity of the occasion
Speech of Introduction
- Prepares the audience for the featured speaker
- Tell the listeners about the featured speaker and their qualifications or why he or she was selected to speak
- Generate interest in the upcoming presentation by sharing a positive impression or story about the speaker
- Make sure to verify all facts about the speaker you will introduce
- Pronounce the speaker's name correctly
- Avoid platitudes "Here is someone who needs no introduction"
- Express appreciation to the speaker
- Mention the topic of the speaker's talk, but don't evaluate speech - "Marie's speech will be the finest presentation you have ever heard"
Build the Speaker's Ethos and Lay the Groundwork
for Speaker-Audience Identification:
- Create respect by magnifying the speaker's main accomplishments
- Don't be too lavish with your praise
- Mention achievements that are relevant to the speaker's message
- Be Selective (don't make it excessively long)
Award Presentations
- The name of the award and the reason it is being given
- The name of the winner and his or her reason for winning
- The reason you are glad to present the award
- The more your remarks identify the recipient as unique, the more the audience will recognize the award as a personal distinction for the winner.
- Effective awards should also provide generous praise, be personal with a "real life" story, be sincere, and be inspirational
The After-Dinner Speech - a celebratory speech that is given after a special dinner
- should not be too difficult to digest
- should use humor
- should be brief
- should typically leave a message that can guide and inspire future efforts
Master of Ceremonies - plan a good opener, keep the program moving along, introduce participants, and present awards, set the tone or mood, end the program strongly
How many people are effective listeners?
Listening is the conscious act of receiving, comprehending, interpreting, evaluating, and responding to messages.
You
You said to meet you at 8 at the coffee shop
No, I said meet me at 6 at the movie theater
- People pay attention to information they deem important.
- People pay attention to information that touches their experience and background.
- People sort and filter new information on the basis of what they already know.
Stages of Listening
1. The Receive Stage
- In this stage, listeners attend to (or ignore) one or more stimuli from the multitude of stimuli that bombards us continually.
2. The Comprehend Stage
- The goal in this stage is to understand, not interpret or evaluate
3. The Interpret Stage
- This is where listeners try to figure out what the speaker really means
4. The evaluate Stage
- In this stage, listeners "think about the message, make more extensive inferences, evaluate and judge the speaker and the message."
- listeners decide whether the speaker seems qualified, the information and evidence appear accurate, and the comments are relevant and worthwhile
- listeners evaluations are often affected by their attitude toward the speaker, their previous experiences, their expectations, and their beliefs or emotional states
- Your words, appearance, gestures, and visual aids, and your speaking voice are as important to your listeners as are your ideas.
Listening Obstacles
Not These
* External Listening Barriers
- Noise
- Too many unfamiliar words
- Unorganized message
- Speakers volume, pace, movements
* Internal Listening Barriers
- Not paying attention
- Faking attention
- Trigger Words
- Personal Biases
Becoming a Critical Listener
1. Listen critically to determine accuracy of facts and evidence
2. Listen critically to determine reason for emotional appeals
Evaluating Classroom Speeches
What makes a good speech?
1. Overall Considerations
2. Has Substance
3. Structure
4. Presentation Skills
The Audience
Audience Analysis - the process by which a speaker gathers and analyzes information about the audience to discover the listeners’ needs and interests to the fullest extent possible. A good audience analysis helps you find the answer to these questions
1. How interested is my audience in my topic?
2. What does my audience know about my topic?
3. How does my audience feel about my topic?
4. How can I best reach my listeners?
Audience Demographics
Audience Dynamics
- The motivations, attitudes, beliefs, and values that influence the behavior of listeners
Audience Diversity
- You need to be able adapt your message so that it crosses the cultural boundaries represented in the typical classroom audience.
Ways to overcome cultural barriers
* Universal values
* Making strategic use of speaking resources
* Avoiding rhetorical land mines
Adjust to Your Setting
- Time
- Place
- Occasion
- Size of Audience
- Context
Master Narrative
Narrative Design
1. Prologue
- orient listeners to the context of the action
- foreshadow meaning and importance of the story that will follow
- introduce important characters

2. Plot
- the action of the story unfolds in a sequence of scenes designed to build suspense until there is a moment of climax
* use colorful details, lively dialogue and graphic imagery
- the characters that are central to the story gain complexity by the way they participate in the action
* develop an ethos
3. Epilogue
- reflects on the meaning of the action
- offers final comments on the character of those who participated in it
Chapter 6: Topic Selection
Good Topic = you care about it, involves the audience, need to be able to acquire the knowledge you will need to speak responsibly upon it
Ways to Discover Your Topic
1. Brainstorming
2. Interest Charts
3. Media and Internet Sources
Exploring Your Topic Area
Techniques - *Mind Mapping and * Topic Analysis
Refining Your Topic
1. General Purpose - to inform, to persuade, to celebrate
2. Specific Purpose - narrows your topic
Example:
Topic Area: The artistry of Dr. Suess
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of Dr. Suess's creative persistence as he composed the
Cat in the Ha
t.
Test Your Statement
1. Does the specific purpose promise new information or fresh advice?
2. Can you accomplish your specific purpose in the allotted time?
3. Have you avoided the double-focus trap?
4. Have you avoided the triviality trap?
5. Have you avoided the technicality trap?
Improve Your Statement
Example:
1. To persuade my audience that driving while distracted is dangerous
2. To persuade my audience not to text while driving
Thesis Statement: summarizes in a single sentence the message of your speech
Principles of a Well-Structured Speech
1. Simplicity
A. Limit number of main points (2-5)
B. Repeat main ideas for emphasis

- Parallel Construction: wording points in a repeated pattern to emphasize their importance and to show how they are both related and contrasted
Example:
Thesis - Our approach to welfare doesn't work
First main point: It doesn't work because it's inadequate
Subpoints ....
Second main point: It doesn't work because it's inefficient
Subpoints...
Third main point: It doesn't work because it's insensitive.
2. Order
3. Balance
Structuring the Body
Step 1: Select your main points
Step 2: Arrange the main points
- Categorical
- Comparative
- Spatial
- Sequential
- Chronological
- Causation
- Problem-Solution
- Refutative
- Narrative
Your Working Outline
1. Coordination: all main points are given similar importance
2. Subordination: supporting ideas and materials descend in importance from the general to the specific as the outline moves from main to sub points

* Don't forget TRANSITIONS
- a pause, voice change, "for my next point," "In addition," etc.
The Introduction Do's and Don'ts
Don't:
- start with "My speech is on..."
Do:
- Acknowledge the audience, location, or occasion
- Invoke shared interests and values
- Involve the audience (rhetorical questions, show of hands, use "we" or "our")
- Use humor appropriately
- Open with a narrative
- Open with a quotation
- Use shock Value
- Build Ethos (competent, likeable, organized, use language effectively, smile, eye contact)
- Preview your message (foreshadow)
* Don't just say "I'm going to talk about these 3 points"
Instead say, "To understand the French paradox, we must take a close look at how they combine food choices, their consumption of beverages, and the cultural attitude they have developed towards food.
The Conclusion
1. Summarize
- not a simple repetition
- reflect and reinforce message
2. Concluding Remarks
- refer back to the intro
- restate the relevance of your message to the audience
- issue a call to action
- ask a rhetorical question
- close with a story
- close with a quote
- close with a metaphor
- use repetition
Example:
Specific Purpose: To persuade listeners that binge drinking is a serous problem.
Thesis Statement: Today I want to discuss a major problem on campus - binge drinking- and what we can do about it.
Topic Area: The Artistry of Dr. Seuss
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of Dr. Seuss's creative persistence as he composed
The Cat in the Hat
Thesis Statement:
The Cat in the Hat
is the incredibly simple product of an incredibly complicated creative process.
Your Turn
Topic Choices - Alzheimer's Disease
Beekeeping
Earthquakes
Drinking and driving

Tell me the General Purpose, Specific Purpose, and Thesis Statement
Narrative Examples
Ch. 7 - Building Responsible Knowledge
1. Find General Background Information
- take notes
- identify at least 4 keywords
- www.libraryspot.com - encyclopedia
2. Acquire in-depth knowledge
- use a variety of sources represent different perspectives
- introduce authors of quotes
- identify sources of information
3. Include local applications
- talk about things locally
- libraries have vertical files - files with local newspaper clippings, pamphlets, and stuff about local people and issues
Responsible Knowledge - entails a comprehensive understanding of your topic that allows you to speak effectively and ethically
Steps to Follow:
1. Use your personal knowledge as a starting point
2. Library
3. Internet
Things to Note (for internet sites):
- author's name
- complete URL
- record date accessed
- record date info was posted
Evaluating Research Materials
* Ask yourself these questions
1. Does this source contain relevant actual and statistical information
2. Does this source cite experts whom I can quote or paraphrase in my speech?
3. Does this source provide interesting examples that can help illustrate my main ideas?
4. Does this source provide narratives that can bring my topic to life?
Consider the 4 R's
- Relevance
- Representativeness
- Reliability
- Recency
Internet
A. Advocacy Website - raise consciousness and influence attitudes or behaviors (.org)
B. Information Website - provide factual information (.edu, .gov, .com)
C. Personal Websites
Interviews
- do most of research before
- ask open-ended questions
- take notes
Taking Notes
- Source Card: contains bibliographical information
- Information Card: records facts, figures, examples, or quotes
The Bibliography
Ch. 8 - Supporting Materials
1. Facts and Statistics
2. Testimony
3. Examples
4. Narratives
1. Facts and Statistics
- Facts: statements that can be verified by independent observers as true or false
- Statistics: facts measured mathematically

* You must explain how the facts are linked to your message and what precisely it is that they demonstrate
Test the Facts and Stats with the 4 R's
- should be RELEVANT to your message
- should REPRESENT the larger reality or situation you are addressing
- should be RELIABLE - verify with 2 sources
- should be RECENT
2. Testimony - involves citing the words or ideas of other people or institutions to support and illustrate your ideas
A. Expert - comes from people who are qualified by training or experience to speak as authorities on a subject
- Reluctant Testimony - highly credibly; occurs when experts testify against their own self interests
B. Lay - citing the words or views of everyday people on a subject
C. Prestige - citing the words of a person who is highly admired or respected but not necessarily an expert on your topic
* Use direct quotes when each word is important (write these down and read them)
* Paraphrase when the quote is really long and not every word is essential
3. Examples
- helps clarify your points
- can easily arouse emotions
- provides emphasis
TYPES:
1. Brief Example - a specific instant, concise and to the point
2. Extended Example - provides more detail
3. Factual Example - based upon an actual event or experience of a real person
4. Hypothetical Example - not real, but gives you something to consider
Points to Remember
- keep it brief
- make it colorful and lively
- use transitions (for instance)
- emphasize concrete details (names, places, etc.)
- good for opening/closing speech
- good for clarifying principal ideas
- examples ground speeches in reality
- don't use ones that seem far fetched
4. Narratives
- provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas and issues
- engage listeners in the speech
- help to cross barriers that often separate people
- help to establish identification and credibility
TYPES:
1. Embedded Narrative - occurs at specific points within the overall structure of a speech
2. Vicarious Experience Narrative - a narrative that invites listeners to imagine themselves as participants in a story
google, yahoo, directory.google.com, www.ipl.org, scholar.google.com, news.google.com, www.merriam-webster.com, www.searchgov.com, www.factfinder.census.gov, www.whitehouse.gov, www.americanrhetoric.com
Tips for Searching
- use AND to focus
- use OR to broaden
- use a - to restrict (Lions -Detroit)
- use NEAR when words should be close together in document
- use " " to restrict to those exact words
- use "oil spill" site:whitehouse.gov to limit to that site
A narrative even within a speech still needs a prologue, plot and epilogue
- Example page 162
Evaluating Narratives
_________ Is the narrative relevant to my topic and purpose?
__________ Does the narrative fairly represent the situation?
__________ Will the story help listeners make sense of things?
__________ Will the narrative draw listeners into the action?
__________ Is the narrative appropriate for this audience?
__________ Will the story provide appropriate role models?
__________ Will the story enhance identification among listeners, topic, and speaker?
__________ Will the narrative make my speech more memorable?
__________ Does the story set an appropriate mood for my message?
__________ Is the narrative fresh and interesting?
__________ Does the story flow well?
__________ Is the narrative believable?
__________ Is the narrative in good taste?
OVERALL:
1. If your ideas are controversial, rely primarily on facts, statistics, factual examples, or expert testimony from sources your audience will respect and accept.
2. If your topic and ideas seem distant or abstract, bring them to life with examples and narratives.
3. If a point is highly technical, define key terms and supplemental facts and statistics with expert testimony.
4. If you need to excite emotions, use lay testimony and vividly described examples or narratives.
5. If you need to defuse emotions, emphasize facts, statistics, and expert testimony.
6. If your ideas are novel or unfamiliar, provide key facts and illustrative examples, define and explain basic terms and concepts, and provide analogies to help your listeners better understand them.
Informative Speaking
Informative Speech - promotes understanding of an idea, person, thing, concept, event, complicated term, process, or place; conveys a body of related facts; or demonstrates how to do or make something.
Informative Value - how much new important information or understanding the speech provides the audience
1. Demonstration Speech: the speaker shows how to do or make something while explaining each step
2. Informational Speech: increases awareness by introducing the latest information about a topic or body of related facts, or presents information promoting understanding of a complicated idea, term or concept.
For example: a speech about flower arranging could talk about the aesthetic value of flowers, flower selection, and flower placement while using visual aids.
Tools to Aid Understanding and Memory
1. Definition: if your audience is unfamiliar with your topic, you will need to provide a definition. You can then also provide a comparison or a contrast, or a couple examples.
2. Description: paint a vivid, detailed picture of the topic using concrete words and figures of speech (similes, metaphors, onomatopoeia, etc.)
Speech Designs
1. Categorical - each category is a main point
2. Comparative
- similarities/differences
- present/past
- unknown/ known
A. Literal Analogy - subjects compared are drawn from same field of experience
B. Figurative Analogy - subjects compared are drawn from different field of experiences
3. Spatial - main points arranged as they occur in physical space
Ex) Going through Yellowstone National Park
- take audience on an "oral tour"
- presentation aid of a map
4. Sequential - "how-to"
5. Chronological
- start at past and bring to present
- start at present and trace back to origins
6. Causation
- go from cause to effect
- go from effect to cause
Briefings - short informative speech offered in an organizational setting
- involve description and demonstration, but emphasizes explanation
- should be brief
- organize ideas in advance
- rely heavily on facts, figures, expert testimony, and short examples
- adapt language to audience
- be confident
- be prepared to answer questions
Ch. 11 - Putting Your Words to Work
Spoken Words compared to Written Words
1. Spoken word is more spontaneous and less formal
2. Spoken words are more colorful and intense
3. Spoken words more interactive, engaging listeners directly and personally
4. Spoken words have special constraints as well as opportunities
5. Spoken words can influence in vital ways
Spoken words can bridge the gap
- they can help speakers and listeners see subjects the same
Spoken words can arouse feelings and emotions
- in order to arouse emotions speakers must help listeners overcome the barriers of time, distance and apathy
1. Time - listeners live in the present. Makes it hard to awaken feelings about events that lie in the past or distant future. Have to use words that make the past and future come alive.
2. Distance - if people haven't had your similar experiences you must make them relatable
- use sensory descriptions
3. Apathy
- this is when people have a lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern
- Often happens because people have heard so many things that they are bored with the topic or don't want to listen anymore (information overload)
- overcome apathy by using connotative meanings instead of denotative meanings of words
* Connotative - invests a subject with the speakers personal associations and emotions
Ex) alcohol - intoxicating substance
* Denotative - words general dictionary definition
Ex) alcohol - a colorless liquid that is also used as a solvent
Ex) While I was parachuting into Panama as part of Operation "Just Case," I was wounded by a trace bullet.

OR

My moment came, and I jumped out into whatever destiny awaited. My parachute opened, and so did an incredible scene below me. The darkness of two o'clock in the morning was penetrated by streaks of red light marking the paths of tracer rounds as they cut their way through the night Suddenly, I felt something hit me in the right leg with a force that spun me around like a twisted yo-yo at the end of a string.
Ex) It's hard to remember that Federal Express was once just a fly-by-night dream, a crazy idea in which a few people have invested-not just their time and their money but their lives and futures. I remember one time early on when things weren't going so well. Couldn't even make the payroll that week and looked like we were going to crash. Fred [Smith, founder of the company] was in a deep funk. "What the hell," he said, and flew off to Las Vegas. The next day he flew back and his face was shining. "We're going to make it," he said. He had just won $27,000 at the blackjack table! And we made it. We met the payroll. And then things began to turn around and Federal Express grew eventually into the giant it is today.
Ex) "don't know what it's like to feel the cold, smooth wood of the cheekpiece against your face. And they don't know the rich smell of Hoppe's No. 9 [oil] when you're cleaning your rifle."
Spoken words can bring listeners together
Spoken words can prompt listeners to take action
Spoken words can celebrate shared values
The 6 C's of Language Use
1. Clarity
- first you must understand what you want to say
- second you must find words that convey your ideas precisely and simply as possible
How Clarity Can be Impaired
- Jargon
- Deliberately avoiding clarity by using euphemisms (words that soften or evade the truth of a situation)
- Using doublespeak (use of words to deliberately befuddle listeners and hide unpleasant truths)
How You Can Avoid Impairing Clarity
- Use amplification (extends time listeners have to contemplate an idea)
2. Color
- emotional intensity or vividness of language
- neologisms - invented words that combines old words to form a new word
3. Concreteness
- avoid abstract words
- say it precisely
4. Correctness
- avoid grammar mistakes
- don't overuse thesaurus
- malapropism - language errors that occur when a word is confused with another word that sounds like it
Ex) antidote - anecdote
5. Conciseness
- make points quickly and efficiently
- use maxims (brief and particularly apt sayings)
Ex) Actions speak louder than words
6. Cultural Sensitivity
- choose words carefully
- avoid stereotypes
Special Techniques to Magnify Your Voice
A. Metaphor
- Enduring Metaphor - metaphors of unusual power and popularity that are based on experience that lasts across time and that crosses many cultural barriers
Ex) Light-Darkness; Storms-Sea
1. Figurative Language
B. Simile
C. Synecdoche - represents a subject by focusing on a vivid part of it or on something clearly associated with it
Ex) •The phrase “gray beard” refers to an old man.
•The word “sails” refers to a whole ship.
•The word “suits” refers to businessmen.
D. Personification
E. Culturetypes - terms that express the values and goals of a groups culture
- sometimes are stated in the form of a metaphor
Ex) "New frontier" stands for freedom, challenge and opportunity
F. Ideographs - compact expressions of a groups basic political faith
- Use them sparingly
- make sure they are legitimate claims
- come from a credible source
Ex) freedom, liberty, democracy
2. Change the Order of the Words
A. Antithesis - arranges different or opposing ideas in the same or adjoining sentence to create a striking contrast
Ex) •“That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” - Neil Armstrong
•"We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." - Martin Luther King, Jr.
B. Inversion - reverse the expected order of words in a phrase or sentence to make a statement more memorable and emphatic
Ex) Life is where you get your answers questioned
C. Parallel Construction - repeats the same pattern of words in a sequence of phrases or sentences for the sake of impact
3. Using sounds of words to reinforce their sense
A. Alliteration
B. Onomatopoeia
1. What is the most beautiful word you know?
2. What is the softest or gentlest word?
3. What is the ugliest word?
4. What is the most frightening word?
5. What is the harshest or sharpest word?
6. What word makes you feel lonely?
7. What word makes you feel angry?
8. What is the most overused or trite word?
9. What word makes you feel happiest?
Ch. 14 - Persuasive Speaking
How it differs from informative speech
1. Urges a choice among options
2. Act as an advocate, not a teacher
3. Use supporting material as evidence to justify a point
4. Audience are now agents of action
5. Ask for more audience commitment
6. Be confident and competent
7. Appeal to feelings
8. Greater ethical obligation
Types of Persuasive Speeches
1. Speeches that focus on facts
- past facts (what has happened)
- present facts that confirm what they claim
- present supporting testimony from recent respected expert sources
- recreate a dramatic credible narrative of how events in a dispute may have happened
- current facts
- make predictions
2. Speeches that address attitudes, beliefs and values
- attitudes, beliefs and values should be in harmony, but when opposed to each other, you experience cognitive dissonance - discomfort we feel (or should feel) because of conflict among our attitudes, beliefs, values
- persuasive speaker can create or restore consistency
- values are an integral part of personality so they are harder to change and it is rare that a single speech would change them (often when they are changed it is because society is in desperate times or situations)
3. Speeches that advocate action and policy
- encourage listeners to change their behavior either as individuals or as members of a group
- create coherence between what we say and do
- need to practice what you preach
- advocates group action
- spell out consequences of acting vs. not acting
- plan must be practical and reasonable
- listeners should be able to see themselves enacting it successfully
The Persuasive Process
1. Awareness (consciousness raising)
- let the audience know there is a problem and that they need to pay attention to it
2. Understanding
- You must know how to carry out your proposals so the listeners can grasp what you are telling them
- use examples
3. Agreement
- acceptance by listeners of your position
- show your knowledge and passion of the topic
- listeners need to believe you believe that cause is worthy
4. Enactment
- need to act on it
- constructive action
5. Integration
- listeners connect new attitudes and commitments with previous beliefs and values to ensure lasting change
Challenges of Persuasive Speaking
1. Enticing a reluctant audience to listen
- adopt a co-active approach - seeks to bridge the differences between you and your listeners
- establish identification early in your speech
- start with areas of agreement before you tackle areas of disagreement
- explain your position (don't refute theirs)
- cite respected authorities
- set modest goals
- show respect for opposing positions
2. Remove barriers to commitment
- provide needed information
- show listeners that your proposal agrees with principles they already accept
- show personal commitment and cite experts to strengthen credibility
3. Move from attitude to action
- arouse feelings
- revitalize shared beliefs and values
- show your listeners how the quality of their lives depend on action
- present clear plan of action
- show simply what to do and make it easy to comply
4. Present an ethical speech
Designs for Persuasive Speeches
1. Problem-Solution Design
2. Motivated-Sequence Design
-step-by-step approach (5 steps)
3. Refutative Design - appropriate when you need to challenge other views
- consists of 5 steps
1. state point you are going to refute and explain why it is important
2. Tell audience how you are going to refute point
3. Present evidence- facts, figures (cite sources)
4. Tell them directly what the evidence means
5. Explain significance of your refutation - show how it discredits or damages opposing position
Ch. 15 - Building Sounds Arguments
4. Combine Designs
* Don't us manipulative persuasion - when you use colorful, music and attractive spokespersons more than evidence and reasoning. It is unethical.
Instead need to use REASONED PERSUASION - you build arguments out of carefully constructed evidence and proofs.
Reasoned Persuasion involves building evidence and developing proofs
Building Evidence
- supporting materials function as evidence
- facts, figures, examples, stories, expert testimony
- use multiple sources
Developing Proofs
- a proof is an array of evidence, combined in a way that drives thoughtful listeners towards a conclusion
- Aristotle gave three answers to the question how do proofs work?
1. Logos - a form of proof that appeals to reason based largely on facts and expert testimony presented logically
2. Pathos - proofs relying on appeals to personal feelings
3. Ethos - a form of proof that relies on the audience's perceptions of a speaker's leadership qualities of competence, character, goodwill, dynamism
- In more modern time, there is a fourth one recognized
4. Mythos - a form of proof grounded in the social feelings that connect us powerfully with group traditions, values, legends, and loyalties
* A persuasive speech rarely relies on a single kind of proof. In manipulative persuasion, ethos, pathos and mythos are tapped more than logos. But reasoned persuasion stresses logos and assigns supporting roles to ethos, pathos and mythos.
Proof by Ethos
- initial credibility to emerging credibility to terminal credibility
Proof by Pathos
- tell personal stories to appeal to emotions
Proof by Mythos
- appeals to cultural identity that often call on patriotism
The Master Proof - Logos
- speech must be logical
- First, must clearly and simply define what you are talking about
- Second reason from principle
* Deductive reasoning - starts from some rule or principle and draws out of it a conclusion about how we should act (going from general to specific)
- Third, reason from reality
* Inductive reasoning - draws general conclusions from particular instances (going from specific factual instances to reach a general conclusion)
- Fourth, reason from parallel cases
* Analogical reasoning - relate the subject to something similar that the audience has strong feelings about
Don't commit FALLACIES, or errors of reasoning
- look at them on page 349
Ch. 10 - Presentation Aids
* Advantages
- Increase understanding
- Make speech more memorable
- Add variety and interest
- Establishes authenticity of your words
- Enhances speakers credibility
- Helps improve speakers delivery skills

* Disadvantages
- Distracts listeners
- Confuse listeners
- Damage your credibility
- Distract you as a speaker
- Reduce eye contact with audience
- Put you at mercy of equipment

Types
1. People
2. Object and Models
3. Graphics
4. Pictures

Presentation Media
- Flip Chart
- Chalk/White board
- Posters
- Handouts
- Transparencies, projections, and slides
- Video/audio resources
- Powerpoints
- Prezi

Preparing Aids
- A good aid is simple, easy to see, puts emphasis on what is important in your speech, and uses balance. Also, colors enhance aids.

- As a speaker, your goal is to get listeners to focus their attention on the message at hand without daydreaming or getting distracted by the environment or personal problems
Tips for Stimulating and Motivating your audience to listen in the receiving stage
1. Grab audience attention right away with a powerful attention getter, such as a startling statement, two or three brief examples, a personal experience, a short demonstration, a question, or a humorous anecdote
2. Keep their attention by convincing them that your presentation will benefit them or people they care about
As a speaker, your goal is to help audience members from diverse backgrounds and experiences understand your message
Tips for the Comprehending Stage
1. Make sure your vocabulary fits your audience
2. Personalize your speeches by sharing something about yourself in narrative or story form (or tell about the experience of someone you know
Tips for the Interpreting Stage
1. Don't send conflicting messages - meaning listeners pay attention to more than just what you say, they are taking in what they see and hear. So appear confident, make eye contact, speak loudly and with the appropriate tone.
Tips for the Evaluate Stage
1. Strengthen your personal credibility - give a well-organized presentation that includes examples from personal experience as well as evidence from known experts (look and sound confident)
2. Highlight the credibility of your sources - clearly describe your sources qualifications, refute any expected criticism of your sources
3. Listeners deliberately misunderstand your message - you want to make it clear that you view the "problem" as fairly common
4. Listeners tune out - use a dynamic style of delivery, include powerful stories and personal narratives, add humor, use visuals
5. The Respond Stage
- This is when the listeners give feedback
Tips for the Respond Stage
1. Don't judge on one person - look to see what a multitude of people are doing
2. Put feedback cues in context
3. End with "I have one last point to make before concluding my speech" or "In conclusion"
6. The Memory Stage
- This is where listeners decide what parts, if any, of the speaker's comments to retain and then attempt to story those in memory.
- Memory is needed in all five of the primary listening stages
Tips for the Memory Stage
1. Begin with an attention-getter such as a question
2. Use acronyms as memory aids
3. Periodically review previous points
4. Present a hypothetical situation or problem and then reflect with the audience on possible solutions
5. Visually present a short quiz
6. Include an emotional example to illustrate an important point
7. Relate new or novel information to commonly held beliefs or myths
8. Show information in visual form
9. Challenge audience members to share important facts from your speech with family and friends when they go home
10. Know your audience well enough so you can relate important ideas to audience experiences
* Informative speeches are not meant to influence choices or opinions. Their goal is to deepen understanding, to instruct, or to teach.
3. Explanation: when a topic is complex, you will need one or more explanations that answer the questions -
how, what, and why?
4. Narration: a story about real or imagined things, people, or events told with detail and enthusiasm
"Stickiness" Tips
1. Grab attention with very first words - make them unexpected or new
2. Use acronyms and other mnemonic devices
3. Repeat information like commercials do
4. Reflect with audience on situation/problem
5. Get audience involved in answering questions
6. Use emotional examples in a narrative or story form
7. Relate new information to what is known
8. Compare ideas to audience experiences
9. Encourage audience to share what they learned with others
Steps in Preparing an Informative Speech
1. Determine your topic (something you know a little about and are interested in and is of value to your audience)
2. Figure out your exact purpose ("After hearing my speech, the audience will ....")
3. Select 3 to 5 main points to talk about
4. Research your topic (remember you need at least two sources cited)
* Limit your use of statistics and explanation, and increase your use of instances, comparisons, and expert opinions.
5. Plan your Intro and Conclusion
- Begin with an attention getter (not your statement of purpose)
- End with a final memorable attention-getter that will leave your audience thinking about your speech
6. Make your speaking notes (try to put only 4-5 words on each note card)
Full transcript