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Transcript of Vertebrate Project
Eagle, Dane. "Roughtail Stingray." FLMNH Ichthyology Department.
Florida Museum of National History, 2012. Web. 24 May 2013.
Brown, Eric, Jared Pasquarella, and Michelle Thompson. "Dasyatis Centroura." Animal Diversity Web.
Regents of the University of Michigan, 2011. Web. 24 May 2013.
Mitchill. "Roughtail Stingray (Dasyatis Centroura)." Marine Species Identification Portal.
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Holem, Ryan. "Litoria Infrafrenata." Animal Diversity Web.
Regents of the University of Michigan, 2000. Web. 27 May 2013.
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Australia Reptile Park, 2010. Web. 26 May 2013.
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NOAA, 21 Feb. 2013. Web. 26 May 2013.
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National Geographic Society, 2013. Web. 27 May 2013.
Behmke, Shannon. "Ramphastos Toco." Animal Diversity Web.
Regents of the University of Michigan, 2011. Web. 26 May 2013.
Smith, P. A. "Toco Toucan." Animal Fact Guide.
Animal Fact Guide, 2013. Web. 26 May 2013.
"Clouded Leopard." National Geographic.
National Geographic Society, 2013. Web. 27 May 2013.
"About Clouded Leopards." Smithsonian National Zoological Park.
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"The Mammalian Digestive System." The Mammalian Digestive System.
SRVHS, 2013. Web. 27 May 2013.
<http://www.srvhs.org/staff/teachers/CSoldati/mammalian digestive system.htm>. Roughtail Stingray Kingdom: Animalia
Species: centroura Largest Atlantic whiptail stingray
Dark brown dorsal side with a whitish ventral side; is diamond-shaped
Has a tail that is two and a half times the size of its body; has small poisonous spines on the tail
Lives in sand and mud bottoms; in waters as deep as 200m
Feeds on some invertebrates and bony fish Digestive System Ingest food by simply swallowing or biting using their teeth
Food goes through the mouth to the esophagus; continues to the stomach (often U-shaped)
Digestion begins in the stomach and is continued in the intestines (spiral valve)
Nutrients are absorbed in the intestines
Digestive system ends with the rectum and cloaca Respiratory System Most cartilaginous fish have gill slits
Water enters the body through the mouth
Water flows to the gill chambers
Oxygen is absorbed, then the water leaves through the gills Circulatory System Closed circulatory system
Blood travels from the heart to the gills and continues throughout the body; returns to the heart
Heart divided into two chambers: the atrium and the ventricle
Blood is pumped in the ventricle and returns to the heart into the atrium Excretory System Have kidneys to filter blood
Kidneys have nephrons; maintain the balance between salt and water and also clean the blood
Some species have gills; some wastes eliminated through gills
Other wastes excreted through the cloaca Reproductive System Most undergo internal fertilization
Some lay eggs while others give birth
Many species are able to protect themselves from when they are born; better able to survive
Most do not have too many offspring Chondrichthyes Amphibia Digestive System Food enters through the mouth and down the esophagus to the stomach
Digestion begins in the stomach and continues in the small intestine (pancreas gives enzymes to help digest)
Nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine; enters bloodstream
Goes from the small intestine to the large intestine
The cloaca is located at the end of the intestine and stores wastes before excretion Respiratory System Respiration occurs through diffusion at the larval stage for most species
Their skin and gills are used for these processes
Lungs are also used for respiration when they become adults
Some are able to survive both in land and in water because gas exchange is possible through their skin Circulatory System Two pathways of blood vessels around the body
Heart divided into three chambers: the right atrium, left atrium, and ventricle
Blood leaves the heart and fills with oxygen in the lungs and skin; then returns
Blood leaves the heart again with oxygen and carries it around the body
Oxygen used in cellular processes
Blood with oxygen enters the left atrium
Blood without oxygen enters the right atrium Reproductive System Females lay eggs in the water for external fertilization
A jelly-like substance around the eggs attaches them to the surface for better access to nutrition
Egg yolk provides nourishment for the embryo
Tadpoles or larvae hatch from the eggs
Undergoes metamorphosis to get to the full adult stage Excretory System Have kidneys that filter blood
Aquatic amphibians excrete ammonia; terrestrial amphibians excrete urea
Ammonia and urea are wastes of cellular processes
Wastes are stored in the bladder before excretion
Excreted through the cloaca White-lipped Tree Frog Kingdom: Animalia
Species: infrafrenata The largest tree frog; can grow up to 14cm long
Is somewhere between bright green and brownish green
Has a unique white lower lip
Also has a white stripe by its back legs
Found in New Guinea and Northern Australia
Big feet and webbed toes; good at climbing trees
Eats a variety of different insects
The females are usually bigger than the males
Have a mating call that resembles a dog's bark Digestive System Tongues used to help swallow food in some organisms; others have long and sticky ones to catch prey
Swallows by thrusting its jaws forward
Some venomous snakes begin digestion externally by paralyzing its victim
Digestive system is similar to amphibians'; food goes from the mouth to the esophagus to the stomach (digestion begins)
Food continues down the digestive tract to the small and large intestines Reptilia Respiratory System Most have lungs for respiration
Inhales by expanding upper body and contracting the rib cage muscles
Exhales by doing the opposite
Lungs have larger surface area; enables reptiles to do more complex things because of the increased amount of oxygen they can use Circulatory System Three or four chambered heart; ventricle may or may not be separated by a septum
Full septum separates blood with and without oxygen in the ventricle
Left atrium still receives blood with oxygen; right atrium receives blood without oxygen
Circulation is similar to amphibians Reproductive System Eggs are fertilized internally
An embryo forms inside an amniotic egg; covered with a leathery shell
Amniotic eggs are built to provide nutrition and protection for the embryo in its developing stage
Eggs are laid in a hole to hatch Excretory System Have kidneys that filter blood
Urine becomes uric acid in the cloaca as water is absorbed
Uric acid excreted as a semisolid
Homeostasis is maintained by keeping water and minerals in this way Loggerhead Sea Turtle Kingdom: Animalia
Species: caretta Largest hard-shelled turtle
Has a thick beak
Can eat hard-shelled organisms because of their strong jaws
Carnivorous: eat a variety of sea creatures such as jellyfish, squid, conch, and some crustaceans
Can live for over fifty years in the wild
Nest outside of the water
Endangered species Digestive System Ingest food in a variety of different ways; food carried down the esophagus
Food stored in the crop, then continues to the stomach
Continues to the gizzard which breaks down the food (not chewed before)
Goes through the small intestine where food is digested and nutrients are absorbed
Pancreas and liver help in digestion Respiratory System Air moves in one direction
Inhalation: oxygen enters and travels through the trachea
New air enters the posterior air sacs
Air in the lungs go to the anterior air sacs
Exhalation: air from posterior air sacs go to the lungs
Air from the anterior air sacs leave the body Reproductive System Birds have a breeding season
Birds fertilize internally; amniotic eggs form within the female
Amniotic egg surrounded by a shell
Eggs are laid through the cloaca; eggs are incubated inside a nest for better survival conditions (provide warmth by sitting on them)
Eggs hatch; fed by their parents Excretory System Have kidneys to filter blood; wastes in the form of uric acid
Goes to the cloaca; water is absorbed
Lack a bladder so urine would not weigh it down as it flies
Uric acid leaves the body as a whitish substance Circulatory System Heart divided into four chambers: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle
Ventricles separated by a septum; blood with oxygen and without oxygen are divided
Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium and leaves the heart through the left ventricle; pumped around the body
Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium and leaves the heart through the right ventricle; goes to the lungs to carry oxygen Toucan Toco Kingdom: Animalia
Species: toco Largest toucan
Beak made of keratin; has air pockets to become lighter
Fruits are a main part of their diet; use their large beaks
Have a long, flat tongue to eat insects and other animals
Eats seeds and eggs as well
Hop from tree to tree; poor flier and can only travel short lengths
Lives in hollows; lay eggs inside as well
Live in South America in different climates Digestive System Many mammals chew their teeth to increase food's surface area
Food goes through the pharynx and esophagus to the stomach
Stomach starts digestion and absorption; continues in the small intestine
Stomach is divided into four different chambers in ruminant herbivores
Goes through the large intestine; eventually leaves system through the anus
Digestive methods depends on the organism's diet
Herbivores have longer digestive systems than carnivores (plants are harder to digest)
Some species have a cecum that aids in breaking down cellulose or absorption
Some also have the pancreas, the liver, and gall bladder
Respiratory System Have a diaphragm, a muscle that separates the chest cavity from other organs
Inhalation: diaphragm contraction expands the chest cavity as air enters the lungs
Oxygen enters the circulatory system through diffusion
Exhalation: diaphragm relaxation contracts the chest cavity as air leaves the lungs
Reproductive System Mammals undergo internal fertilization
Embryos develop within the uterus (in female)
The placenta provides the embryo with nutrients
Young mammals drink milk from mother's mammary glands after birth Excretory System Have kidneys that filter blood
Kidneys help to maintain homeostasis by controlling water balance in body fluids
Development of the kidney is an adaptation for different environments
Wastes also excreted through the anus
Circulatory System Heart divided into four chambers: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle
Blood with oxygen and blood without oxygen are separated by a septum
Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle and goes to the lungs; becomes oxygenated
Oxygenated blood goes to the left atrium; blood pumped throughout the body and returns to the heart (right atrium)
More complex method of circulation due to the fact that they are endothermic
Mammalia Clouded Leopard Kingdom: Animalia
Live in southeast Asia
Named for their dark cloud-like markings on their yellow-grey pelts
Extremely good climbers; have large paws, short legs, and sharp claws
Have long tails which result in good balance
Hunt on the ground; are carnivores, eating other vertebrates
Have the largest canine teeth in comparison to their body size
Can hang upside down on trees because of their firm grip