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The History of Music

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Steven Smith

on 17 April 2014

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Transcript of The History of Music

1450
1600
1820
450
1750
The History of Music
The Middle Ages
When you think of the "Middle Ages" or "Medieval" times, what do you think of?
Knights?
Castles?
Kings?
The Renaissance Period
The word "renaissance" means "re-birth".
After the poverty and depression of the middle ages was over, there was an explosion of knowledge, learning, and artistic expression.
The Baroque Period
The word "baroque" comes from the Italian word "barocco", meaning "bizarre".

During this time, music continued to grow, develop, and change.

Music mostly emphasized the voice, string, and keyboard instruments.
The Classical Period
Side note - What was going on in America?
The Romantic Period
The 20th Century
Modern Music
1900
1950
450-1450
Pre-Historic Music
The earliest we can trace music is around 4000 B.C., because that's when humans started to develop written language.

Music was popular in ancient Greece. In fact, the word "music" comes from the Greek word "muse", who was a Greek goddess of artistic inspiration.
4000 B.C.
harp
lute
lyre
Some of the earliest instruments were invented in Egypt, and can be seen etched into ancient Egyptian architecture.
In pre-historic times, music was passed down through oral tradition. Nothing was ever written down. Therefore, it's hard for us to really know what music was like so long ago.
I bet you don't think about Church. In those days, music was mostly used by the early Christian church, mainly the Roman Catholic church.
Originally, Masses of the Roman Catholic Church were spoken entirely in Latin.

To help focus on the words, some parts of the Mass were sung in chant.

This chant developed between the 9th and 10th centuries, 1000 to 1200 years ago.
It was mostly developed by Pope Gregory I, therefore we call it
Gregorian Chant
.
Gregorian Chant was the first documented music in history. Here's what it looked like:
Over the next several hundred years, Gregorian Chant continued to grow and change. Eventually, more lines of melody were added to the chant, creating
polyphony
.
"Ave Maria Virgo Serena"
by Josquin des Prez
15th century
"Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam"
by: anonymous
"Agnus Dei"
from
Notre Dame Mass
by Guillaume de Machaut
1365
Composers of the Middle Ages:
Hildegard von Bingen
1098-1179
Guillaume de Machaut
1300-1377
Josquin des Prez
1450-1521
Of course, music did exist outside of the church. At this time, most songs were instrumental, although some did have singing.
"Estampie" by: anonymous
"Ecco la Primavera" by: Francesco Landini
around 1370
1450-1600
Ordinary people were now able to experiment with Science, Music, and Art.
Famous people of the Renaissance period:
Leonardo Da Vinci
The Mona Lisa
The Vitruvian Man
First helicopter prototype
Christopher Columbus
Isaac Newton
William Shakespeare
"To be, or not to be. That is the question."
And who could forget:

Leonardo
Donatello
Michelangelo
Rafael
Not those guys... these guys:
Leonardo
Donatello
Michelangelo
Rafael
Music in the Renaissance Period
Although music was still used in churches, it was during the Renaissance Period that music became really popular OUTSIDE of church.

The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450 meant that sheet music could be shared all over the world.

New instruments were being invented, and anyone could learn to play.
bagpipes
hurdy gurdy
krumhorn
viol
organetto
shawm
pipe and tabor
sacbut
Types of Renaissance Music
Church Music
(sacred music)
-madrigals
-chansons
-Masses
-motets
Non-Church Music
(secular music)
"Motets for 5 voices" by Palestrina
Notice that, so far, church music has been a cappella, meaning there are no instruments playing.
"J'ai mis mon cuer" by Dufay
Composers of the Renaissance Period
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 1525-1594
Started as a choir boy.

Eventually went to work as a musician for the Pope.
"Gloria" from
Pope Marcellus Mass
by: Palestrina
The Baroque Period
Two very important types of music emerged during this period:
Opera
Oratorio
Opera
The first opera was composed by Claudio Monteverdi around 1600. It was called
Dafne
. It did not survive.

The first successful opera was Monteverdi's
L'Orfeo
.
Act 1 Prologue "Dal mi permesso", from
L'Orfeo
by Monteverdi
Operas were, at the time, a form of entertainment. Just like we go to the movies today, people during the Baroque period went to the opera.
Baroque Pop Stars
Composers were very popular during the Baroque period. Being a composer was like being a pop star today. They were usually rich and worked for royalty or very wealthy people.
Oratorio
An oratorio is a sacred piece of music (church music) that is usually long. It is not like opera... there is no dancing. People stand and sing, like a choir.

George Frideric Handel composed the most famous oratorio ever, called
The Messiah.
"Hallelujah Chorus", from
The Messiah
by Handel
Guillaume Dufay
1397-1474
A very influential composer.

Traveled all over Italy composing music.

His most famous piece is a Mass called
Missa L'Homme Arme
or "Mass of the Armed Man". It is based on a popular French folk song called
The Armed Man
.
"Kyrie" from
Missa L'Homme Arme
by Dufay
1600-1750
Baroque Instruments
During the Baroque period, instruments were becoming much like the instruments we have today.

There were 3 instrument families used the most:
Strings
Violins, Viols, Cellos
Woodwinds
Flutes Oboes Bassoons Recorders
Keyboards
Harpsichord
Pipe Organ
Although the piano was invented around 1710, it was not a popular instrument yet.
Composers of the Baroque Period
Antonio Vivaldi
1678-1741
Born in Italy
He was a priest and a violin player
Wrote many different types of music, including operas and concertos.
His most famous piece is a concerto called
The Four Seasons
.
"Spring" from
The Four Seasons
by Vivaldi
Composers of the Baroque Period
George Frideric Handel
1685-1759
Born in Germany
Was extremely popular all over Europe
Became the composer for the British royal family
Wrote many operas and oratorios.
His most famous piece is an oratorio called
The Messiah
"For Unto Us a Child is Born" from
The Messiah
by Handel
Composers of the Baroque Period
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1750
Born in Germany
Spent most of his life working as a church organist
He came from a musical family
Had 20 children, 4 of which became famous musicians
He is considered one of the greatest composers of all time
Wrote tons of music of many different styles
Toccata and Fugue in D minor
by Bach
Prelude No. 1 in C Major
by Bach
1750-1820
1820-1900
1900-1950
1950-present
We've been talking a lot about what was going on in Europe, since that's where our music comes from.
But during the classical period, 1750-1820, what was going on in America?
We were becoming our own country.
In 1776 we signed the Declaration of Independence
From 1775 to 1783 we battled for our freedom in the Revolutionary War
The Classical Period
During the Baroque period music really took off in many different directions.
The Classical period was the opposite--it was time to get back to the basics.
Getting back to the basics.
Music became much more simple, clean, and formal.
That's why we call it the "Classical" period, because at this time music and art were getting back to the classics--art and music from ancient times, especially ancient Greece.
Classical Instruments
It was during the Classical period that the orchestra, which used to be mainly strings and harpsichord, was becoming more like the orchestra of today.
More and more composers were using other instruments in their music, so more and more instruments were added to the orchestra.
Strings
violin
viola
cello
bass
harp
Woodwinds
flute
clarinet
oboe
English horn
bassoon
Brass
trumpet
French horn
trombone
tuba
Percussion
timpani
snare drum
bass drum
cymbals
The piano was invented in the early 1700s, and was now the most popular instrument in the world.
Every composer wrote music for the piano.
Classical Composers
Franz Joseph Haydn
1732-1809
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
1756-1791
Ludwig van Beethoven
1770-1827
We had our first 5 presidents during the Classical period:
George Washington 1789-1797
John Adams 1797-1801
Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809
James Madison 1809-1817
James Monroe 1817-1825
born in Austria
spent most of his life working for a wealthy family
was a friend of Mozart and a teacher of Beethoven
Interesting fact:
Haydn noticed that people sometimes fell asleep during performances. He wrote his
Symphony No. 94
as a "Surprise" for those people.
Symphony No. 94, Movement 2
by Haydn
born in Austria
was a child prodigy-- mastered harpsichord and violin by the age of 4, performed for the Emperess of Austria at 6
composed over 600 pieces of music in his life
considered by many to be the greatest composer ever
Mozart conspiracies
It is often believed that Mozart had a playful, childlike, and sometimes vulgar personality.
Mozart died at age 35-- and no one really knows exactly how.
One theory is that he focused so much on composing music that he became crazy and obsessed; his health quickly deteriorated and he died before finishing his last piece of music.
Another theory is that a man named Salieri murdered Mozart because he was jealous. Actually, before Salieri died he confessed to murdering Mozart, but he had been committed to an insane asylum by that time, so was it the truth?
Mozart's Music
Mozart wrote orchestra music:
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
by Mozart
Mozart wrote piano music:
Piano Sonata in C Major
by Mozart
Mozart wrote symphonies:
Symphony No. 40 in G minor
by Mozart
Mozart wrote opera music:
Overture to
The Marriage of Figaro
by Mozart
"Dies Irae" from
Requiem Mass
by Mozart

"Queen of the Night Aria"
from
The Magic Flute
by Mozart
Just kidding... here's the real one.
born in Germany
learned piano at an early age
His music was unlike others in the Classical period. His orchestras were larger and his music was not as simple as others. He is considered the composer that led music out of the Classical period and into the next period, the Romantic period.
Like Bach and Mozart, he is considered one of the greatest composers ever.
Beethoven's problems
Beethoven was known as a rude and moody person.
Some thought he was crazy.
He would even stop playing a concert if he heard someone talking.
Around the age of 30, Beethoven started losing his hearing.
When he was 44, a failed attempt to perform one of his own songs caused him to never perform again.
Even though he went completely deaf, he still composed music. After the premiere of his last symphony, he had to be turned around to see the audience's applause, because he couldn't hear them, or the orchestra.
He got very sick and died when he was 56.
Beethoven's music
Here are 4 of Beethoven's most famous pieces:
Piano Sonata No. 14
"Moonlight Sonata"
by Beethoven
Symphony No. 9, Movt. 4
"Ode to Joy"
by Beethoven
Fur Elise
by Beethoven
Symphony No. 5, Movt. 1
by Beethoven
5:30
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