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Transcript of FGM Prezi
60% of you said it shouldn't be obliterated completely, but women should have a choice for their daughters. Re-take the Survey Take a Look Political Context Sources Matrix Partners preso! Harvard Business Review How to lower the cost of enterprise sales? Mutilation Female Genital Human Rights Project Multi-sectoral Community-led Travels to Clients CASE-STUDY3 How do you feel now? Has your position changed? Re-take the survey here: What is FGM? The World Health Organization defines FGM as procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs, whether for cultural or non therapeutic reasons.
Political Science 4455 - Human Rights Prezi created by: Danielle Vienes
Lauren Holmes CREDITS as a Human Rights Issue Most prevalent in 28 Africa and parts of the Middle East and Asia, but can be found in immigrant communities even in the U.S.
Usually occurs before marriage between infancy and age 15
In African countries, 10-20 babies die for every thousand deliveries as a result of FGM. cultural relativism vs moral universalism Cultural relativism- the belief that each culture has it's own aspects and that one culture is not greater or more "correct" than any other
moral universalism- the idea that if we define something as "morally wrong", it must be considered morally wrong in every culture. "Perhaps the most important rationale for female circumcision is that because it is such an ancient and commonly practiced tradition, reduced or infibulated genitals are simply considered normal" Other names for FGM: Female Genital Mutilation Female Circumcision Female Genital Cutting "Between 100 and 140 million women alive today have experienced some form of the practice"
- UNICEF health complications - recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections
- increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths
- need for later surgeries - often not performed under any anesthesia, so the procedures are incredibly painful
-performed with tools that are often not sterilized making those who receive the procedure at risk for infection
- In many cultures, it is very difficult for a woman to marry without receiving the procedure.
- procedures are often extremely difficult,if not impossible, to perform
- the children are extremely young and cannot give what we would call "consent"
- there are no health benefits associated with FGM. FGM as Human Rights Issue Violations of Rights?
- right to equality?
- right to a healthy body?
- free from torture?
- right to life? Types of FGM Clitoridectomy- partial or total removal of the clitoris Excision- partial or total removal of
the clitoris and the labia minora Infibulation- narrowing of the vaginal
opening through a covering seal No Simple Solution... Interventions
must be: Sustained Collective coordinated choice of multiple families within a community
Empowerment of women
Process of positive social change Media
Laws and policies
NGO's, UN, Professional organizations, leaders "Experience and evidence over the past three decades shows that bringing FGM to an end requires broad-based, long-term commitment. It needs to support successful behavior change and address core values and enforcement mechanisms that support the practice.
Interventions require action from many sectors such as education, finance, justice, social and women’s affairs as well as the health sector, and from many levels. Actors from community groups and nongovernmental organizations need to be engaged, including health professional groups, human rights groups and international agencies.
Programs are best led by communities in a participatory way, supporting the communities to define the problems and solutions themselves. Programs that have demonstrated success in promoting abandonment of FGM on a large scale build on human rights and gender equality and are nonjudgmental and non-coercive. They focus on encouraging a collective choice to abandon FGM." - World Health Organization 2011 http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/9XLK7HR The rate of stillbirth is 15% higher for children born to mothers who experienced FGM Type I
The rate is 32% higher for those with Type II.
The rate is 55% higher for those with Type III. - World Health Organization
- Judging The Other: Responding to Female Surgeries- Lane and Rubinstein
- The Universal Childbirth Picturebook