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Chapter 9 Section 5 - Wilson's New Freedom
Transcript of Chapter 9 Section 5 - Wilson's New Freedom
*The National Womens' Party organized its followers to mount round-the-clock picket lines around the White House.
*Some of the picketers were arrested, jailed, and even force-fed when they attempted a hunger strike.
*Female involvement in World War I (which we will discuss) helped their cause and in 1919, Congress passed the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote.
*The Amendment was ratified in 1920. Wilson Wins
Financial Reforms Chapter 9 Section 5 -
Wilson's New Freedom The Limits of Progressivism Despite Wilson's economic and political reforms, he disappointed Progressives who favored social reforms * Raised in the South
* Worked as a lawyer, history professor, and later, president of Princeton University
*1910 - became governor of New Jersey
*Presidential Platform - "New Freedom" attacked trusts, tariffs, and high finance Wilson's Background *Congress passed the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914
*Prohibited companies from acquiring stock that would result in monopolies
*Corporate officers could be prosecuted
*Labor unions gained the legal right to strike, picket, and boycott
*Creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 1914.
*FTC was empowered to investigate violations of regulations, require periodic reports from corporations, and to put an end to a number of unfair business practices. Two Key Anti-Trust Measures *Because of lower tax income, due to lowered tariffs, the government needed to find new tax revenue.
*In 1913, the 16th Amendment legalized a Federal Income Tax, which provided revenue by taxing individual earnings and corporate profits
* Under this "graduated" system, larger incomes were taxed at higher rates than smaller incomes Federal Income Tax *Wilson and others felt that the nation needed a way to strengthen the ways in which banks were run, as well as a way to quickly adjust the amount of money in circulation
*The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 divided the nation into 12 districts and established a regional central bank in each district.
*Federal reserve banks could transfer funds to member banks in trouble, saving the banks from closing and protecting customer's savings.
*By 1920, roughly 70% of the nation's banking resources were a part of the Federal Reserve System. Federal Reserve System * Catt and the National Movement *As President, Wilson opposed federal antilynching legislation, arguing that these crimes fell under state jurisdiction
*The Capitol offices, which had been desegregated since Reconstruction, were resegregated.
*Wilson appointed to his cabinet, fellow white Southerners who extended segregation. Wilson and Civil Rights *Wilson had said, in 1913, "There's no chance of progress and reform in an administration in which war plays the principal part."
*The beginning of World War I in 1914 would eventually demand American involvement, contributing to the lack of focus on Progressive reforms. The Twilight of Progressivism