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Scandinavian Romanesque Architecture
Transcript of Scandinavian Romanesque Architecture
• LARGEST PENINSULA IN EUROPE
• EXTENDS IN THE ARCTIC CIRCLE AT 65˚N LATITUDE SOUTH TO THE NORTH AND BALTIC SEAS
• 5 COUNTRIES
SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
WHAT IS SCADINAVIA?
region of northern Europe that geographically consists of
(two countries that form the Scandinavian Peninsula) and the country of
In modern times,
Faroe Islands (Faeroe)
are also considered a part of this geographical area, especially in terms of cultural and historic relationships.
Old Aker Church
The realms of Scandinavia proper, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, established their own Archdioceses, responsible directly to the Pope, in 1104, 1154 and 1164, respectively.
Eysteinn Erlendsson ties with Rome in 1161
The conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people required more time, since it took additional efforts to establish a network of churches.
• Danes encountered Christians when they participated in Viking raids from the 9th century to the 1060s
• Religious sites in Denmark were often located at sacred springs, magnificent beech groves, or isolated hilltops. Missionaries simply asked to build chapels in those places. Over time the religious significance of the place transferred itself to the chapel.
• The first Danish king to convert to Christianity was Harald Klak
Various attempts were made by the kings to spread Christianity
Olaf I killed the Pagans to convert the country to Christianity.
The Papal bull confirming the establishment of a Norwegian archdiocese at Nidaros is dated November 30, 1154
The first known attempts to Christianize Sweden were made by Ansgar in 830, invited by the Swedish king Björn at Haugi.
Uppsala was made into a strong Christian centre
Swedish core provinces had coexistence between paganism and Christianity
Sweden was officially Christianized by the 12th century
• The churches are
but very decorative.
o Is a medieval wooden Christian church building once common in north-western Europe.
o The name derives from the buildings' structure of post and lintel construction, a type of timber framing where the load-bearing posts are called stafr in Old Norse and stav in modern Norwegian.
• CAPITAL: OSLO
• LOCATED IN NORTHERN EUROPE ALONG THE NORTH SEA AND THE ATLANTIC OCEAN TO THE WEST OF SWEDEN
• AREA: 125,020 SQ MI (323,802 SQ KM)
• BORDERING COUNTRIES: FINLAND, SWEDEN AND RUSSIA
• MOSTLY GLACIATED
• IN COASTAL AREAS: TEMPERATE
• FARTHER INLAND: WINTERS AND SUMMERS ARE COOL
• WEST COASTS: RAINY AND COOL
• ARCTIC NORTHERN AREAS HAVE HARSH WINTERS
• OSLO: HAS AN AVERAGE JANUARY LOW TEMPERATURE OF 20˚F (-6.7˚C) AND AN AVERAGE JULY HIGH TEMPERATURE OF JUST 71˚F (21.5˚C).
• CAPITAL: STOCKHOLM
• LOCATED IN NORTHERN EUROPE ON THE SCANDINAVIAN PENINSULA
• AREA: 173,860 SQ MI (450,295 SQ KM)
• BORDERING COUNTRIES: FINLAND AND NORWAY
• MAINLY OF FLAT OR GENTLY ROLLING LOWLANDS BUT THERE ARE MOUNTAINS IN ITS WESTERN AREAS NEAR NORWAY.
• SOUTH: MAINLY TEMPERATE; SUMMERS ARE COOL AND PARTLY CLOUDY AND WINTERS ARE COLD AND VERY CLOUDY
• NORTH: SUBARCTIC
• STOCKHOLM: RELATIVELY MILD CLIMATE
• THE AVERAGE JULY HIGH TEMPERATURE IN STOCKHOLM IS 71.4˚F (22˚C) AND THE AVERAGE JANUARY LOW IS 23˚F (-5˚C).
• CAPITAL: HELSINKI
• FINLAND IS LOCATED IN NORTHERN EUROPE ALONG THE BALTIC SEA, THE GULF OF BOTHNIA AND THE GULF OF FINLAND
• AREA: 130,558 SQUARE MILES (338,145 SQ KM)
• BORDERING COUNTRIES: NORWAY, SWEDEN AND RUSSIA
• RELATIVELY GENTLE WITH LOW, FLAT OR ROLLING PLAINS AND LOW HILLS
• THE LAND IS ALSO DOTTED WITH MANY LAKES, OVER 60,000 OF THEM
• NORTHERN AREAS: COLD TEMPERATE AND SUBARCTIC
• MOST AREAS: MODERATED BY THE NORTH ATLANTIC CURRENT
• HELSINKI: LOCATED ON ITS SOUTHERN TIP HAS AN AVERAGE FEBRUARY LOW TEMPERATURE OF 18˚F (-7.7˚C) AND AN AVERAGE JULY HIGH TEMPERATURE OF 69.6˚F (21˚C).
• ICELAND IS LOCATED IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN, JUST SOUTH OF THE ARCTIC CIRCLE
• AREA: 39,768 SQUARE MILES (103,000 SQ KM)
• LARGE PART OF ICELAND IS COVERED WITH GLACIERS AND SNOWFIELDS AND MOST OF THE COUNTRY'S INHABITANTS LIVE IN THE COASTAL AREA
• ONE OF THE MOST VOLCANIC REGIONS IN THE WORLD
• HAS A RUGGED LANDSCAPE DOTTED WITH HOT SPRINGS, SULPHUR BEDS, GEYSERS, LAVA FIELDS, CANYONS AND WATERFALLS.
• INNER PORTION: MOSTLY AN ELEVATED PLATEAU WITH SMALL AREAS OF FOREST
• NORTH: EXTENSIVE GRASSLANDS
• WINTERS ARE USUALLY MILD AND WINDY
• SUMMERS ARE WET AND COOL
• CAPITAL: COPENHAGEN
• INCLUDES THE COUNTRY OF DENMARK, GREENLAND AND THE FAROE ISLANDS
• DENMARK IS THE SOUTHERNMOST COUNTRY IN SCANDINAVIA
• AREA: 16,638 SQUARE MILES (43,094 SQ KM)
• BORDERING COUNTRIES: GERMANY
• RELATIVELY UNIFORM AND CONSISTS OF LOW AND FLAT TO GENTLY ROLLING PLAINS
• MAINLY TEMPERATE AND AS SUCH IT IS HUMID AND OVERCAST FOR PART OF THE YEAR WITH COOL SUMMERS AND MILD, WINDY WINTERS
• COPENHAGEN: IT HAS AN AVERAGE JANUARY LOW TEMPERATURE OF 28.4˚F (-2˚C) AND AN AVERAGE JULY HIGH 68.7˚F (20.4˚C).
TWO RELATED CHURCH BUILDING TYPES ALSO NAMED FOR THEIR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS:
Post church (Norwegian: stolpekirke)
a term for a church building which predates the stave churches and differ in that the corner posts do not reside on a sill but instead have posts dug into the earth.
Posts are the vertical, roof-bearing timbers that were placed in the excavated post holes. Posts were often placed in trenches filled with stone, but were still susceptible to decay.
Is a church building which is built with palisade walls, standing split logs of timber, rammed into the ground, set in gravel or resting on a sill. The palisade walls form an integral part of the load-bearing system.
• Scandinavian ornaments stands in the most intimate relationship with the Celtic.
• In the South of Norway; Stone architecture is predominant
• North of Norway; A typical style of wooden architecture was developed.
COLUMNS FROM THE CRYPT OF THE CHURCH IN DALBY, SWEDEN:
BAPTISMAL FONDS IN THE MUSEUM AT STOCKHOLM:
CAPITAL FROM THE CATHEDRAL AT NIDAROS, DRONTHEIM:
DOORWAY OF THE CHURCH AT RIPE, JUTLAND:
Use of open timber roofs (as Storage places)
Barrel Vault or Tunnel Vault
The simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel which has been cut in half lengthwise
produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel /tunnel vaults.
a masonry vault with a relatively thin web and set within a framework of ribs
THE SOGNIN TYPE
o Takes its name from a country district and distinguished from the other styles of doorways by the delicacy and elegance of the tracery work.
THE THELMARK TYPE
o May be seen in the church of Christianasand. The traceries are broad, very often rough and course, and in strong contrast to the foregoing style.
o Doorway which belongs either to bible history or
to mythology, is found only in South Norway.
• The three Scandinavian kingdoms were united in 1397 in the Kalmar Union by Queen Margrete I of Denmark.
• Much of Norway was united from the late 9th century until 1387 under Harald Fairhair and his successors.
• Cnut the Great briefly united Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden in the early 11th century.
• Benedictine monks from Italy introduced the skill of firing bricks to Denmark.
• Christianity was promoted by Canute the Holy in the late 11th century, with Sweyn II of Denmark
• Much of Sweden was united under Olaf Eiríksson around 995, with the southern area, Götaland being united with Svealand by Sverker I of Sweden in the 1130s
• Adam of Bremen wrote the historical treatise Gesta Hammaburgernsis ecclesiae pontificum
The Romanesque style dominates in Scandinavian art between c. 1100-50 and 1225-75, followed by the early and high Gothic, finally from 1375 by the late Gothic.
A survey of Romanesque painting and architecture in Scandinavia should begin with the the medieval Danish kingdom
no less than about two thousand Romanesque stone churches were erected from the mid-twelfth to the mid-thirteenth centuries
Old Aker Church, Norway, has a very large tower dividing the nave from the chancel.
At Aa Church, Bornholm, Denmark, the western tower has a fortified appearance and crow-step gables.
At Husaby Church, Sweden, the massive tower is framed by round turrets.
Hopperstad Stave church, Norway (1130), one of twenty-five remaining from the Medieval period.
St. Bendt's is a church in Ringsted, Denmark
It is considered to be one of Denmark's architecturally finest churches.
First Royal church in Denmark and it houses the tombs of many of Denmark's earlier monarchs and noblemen.
Nidaros CathedralTrondheim, Norway.
Built over the burial site of Saint Olav
In 1708 the church burned down completely except for the stone walls.
It was struck by lightning in 1719, and was again ravaged by fire.
TRIVIA: Disney production team parked themselves and found the look of Frozen’s castle — in the Nidaros Cathedral and the Royal Residences of Stiftsgarden
Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Scania, Sweden
one of the most popular attractions in the Skåne region, and marks the centre of the city.
: It is the seat of the bishop of Lund of the Church of Sweden.
built of sandstone following the Romanesque style of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and the Rhine region (Germany).
Lund Cathedral in c. 1870, before Helgo Zettervall's changes to the western end of the building.
Denmark has seven rotunda churches, which have a circular nave, divided into several storeys internally, and have projecting chancel and apse
the chancel and apse are constructed as small intersecting circles
Small stone churches in Norway and Sweden have
a short wide nave
western tower with pyramidal shingled spire
Large central towers
Old Aker Church
Openings are generally small and simple. Many doors have a carved tympanum
Arcades may be of simple rectangular piers. Lund Cathedral has alternating rectangular piers and piers with attached shafts which support the vault.
Lund Cathedral, Sweden
King Olaf II of Norway
did much to enforce Christianity on the Vikings, and by the end of the 11th Century, Christianity was the only legal religion.
Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Norway's Eternal King)
St. Bendt's Church, Ringsted