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Copy of Federation for Australia
Transcript of Copy of Federation for Australia
The benefits of uniting all the Australian colonies are numerous. As one united country, Australia will become more efficiently run, and as the representatives of the various colonies, there will be much less stress and hassle put on your shoulders. Since the 1850's, you have been postponing the idea of uniting as one nation, but now the time has come. Today, you will hear many reasons for why the colonies of Australia should Federate. You will discover the facts of Australia's potential future if Federation does occur, and you will be supplied with important knowledge and advice to help you on this journey to Federate Australia.
Federation for Australia
If you, as the leading delegates of the Australian colonies, decide to Federate, then many things will improve drastically, such as:
Transport & trade
A sense of national pride
Things that will improve once Federation occurs
The colonies had a growing concern of being invaded by non-white immigrants. All the colonies (except Western Australia) were keen to unite so they could strengthen their strict policy to keep non-whites out of Australia. At that time, Pacific Islanders (known amongst themselves as Kanakas) were brought to Australia to work in the sugarcane fields, where it was most often hot and dry. Because all the Pacific Islanders were getting the sugarcane jobs, many people felt like their jobs were being taken away from them.
If Australia Federates, it would stop all these problems, as well as the increasingly worrying problem that the Chinese were immigrating to Australia in large numbers due to the Gold Rush in the 1850's.
The various Australian colonies needed a uniform rail system (the same rail system in all colonies). Each colony had different rail gauges (width of track); Victoria's was 1.6 metres, New South Wales' was 1.43 metres, and Queensland's rail gauge was 1.07 metres. Each colony worked independently, therefore the same gauge for all colonies was not discussed. Without a uniform rail gauge, trains could not cross colonial borders This meant that to get to another colony, people had to switch trains, which was an annoying hassle. People involved in inter-colonial trade were also hindered by the different sizes of the rail gauges, because they had to unload and load all their goods onto the next train every time they wanted to cross colonial borders.
Transport & trade
One key reason for Federation was to achieve a united defence force which could better protect the colonies. The colonies were always in fear that attempts would be made to invade Australia, and it would be easy for other countries since Australia is an island and no quick means of escape to other countries are possible. At this time, each of the colonies had their own separate defence forces, which consisted of the army and the navy. It was proven that as six separate colonies, they did not have enough men, arms or even ammunition to satisfactorily provide protection for Australia.
Many people will contribute to the Federation of Australia; turning six colonies into one independent and proud country. The people who will help make all this possible are:
William Guthrie Spence
Catherine Helen Spence
John Feltham Archibald
People who will contribute to Federation
William was born in 1846 and died in 1926, aged 80 years.
It is said that he witnessed the Eureka Stockade as a small child.
William worked as a miner when he was little.
He was one of a small number of people who represented more than one state or territory in Parliament.
William Guthrie Spence
Catherine Helen Spence was born on the 31 October 1825 and died on the 3 April 1910, aged 84.
During her lifetime, she was an author, teacher, journalist as well as a politician.
She vouched for the rights of women, lobbied for greater child welfare as well as a more democratic electoral system.
She became Australia's first female political candidate when she contested to be a delegate to the 1897 Australasian Federal Convention. Unfortunately, she did not succeed.
Catherine Helen Spence
Vida Golstein was born in 1869 and died in 1949.
She ran for the Australian Senate in 1903, but was not elected.
From 1900 to 1905, she edited a women's journal that came out monthly, titled '
Goldstein was nominated as a candidate for the Senate of the Women's Federal Political Association in 1903. She was unsuccessful, and after another four attempts, still unsuccessful.
In 1908, Goldstein launched a journal, '
The Australian colonies were:
New South Wales
Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)
The Six Colonies
In 1803, the first attempts to settle in Victoria were made at Sorrento, near the mouth of Port Phillip Bay. However, this settlement was abandoned only a few months later, due to lack of fresh water.
The colonisation of Victoria would be driven by free settlers, not convicts, unlike Tasmania, Queensland, and New South Wales.
Melbourne, originally called Bearbrass, was founded in 1835.
The new Port Phillip colony grew very quickly, unlike the initial Sorrento colony. By 1850, there were 22000 people living in Melbourne, thanks to the wool industry.
From the late 1830's onwards, some migrants were brought to the colony to provide a labour force.
This colonisation had a terrible effect on the Indigenous people, much like the other colonies. They died of snallpox and measles, as well as violence and loss of their food source. By 1850, it is estimated that the population of Indigenous people had decreased to a mere 3000.
In 1851, Victoria was separated from New South Wales and named Victoria after the queen at that time. Because of the gold rush, Victoria became one of the most richest and prosperous colonies of Australia.
The state of Western Australia was founded in 1827, with the first European settlement being in 1826, at King George Sound. Unlike other colonies, Western Australia was to be a free settlement without convictism.
The population of Western Australia grew very slowly. Because there was not enough labour due to it being a free settlement without any convicts to do all the work. Therefore, many people worked as farmers, leaving the few people left over to work for very low wages.
Finally, due to the shortage of labour, convicts were sent to Western Australia. During the period between 1850 and 1868, almost 10000 convicts, all male, were transported to the Swan River colony. There, they worked on public buildings, roads, bridges and prisons. Some were assigned as farmers.
Like the other colonies, the inhabitants of the Swan River colony did not acknowledge that the land they had settled on belonged to the Aborigines. Initially, the white settlers and the Aborigines behaved in a friendly manner towards each other, but soon it became clear that they could not get along with one another. When the white settlers killed an Aborigine elder, Yagan, the Battle of Pinjarra, also known as the Pinjarra Massacre, broke out. It was one of the worst attacks on Indigenous people in Australia's entire history. The Aborigine death toll is unclear, but varied from 10 to 150 depending on the source.
Most of the Indigenous people in the areas surrounding Perth had been dispossessed of their land by the 1850's.
The state of New South Wales was founded in 1788. Captain Phillip was the ruler of the New South Wales colony, as he had stayed there for almost five years. Captain Phillip was known to be a humane leader, not just to other whites but also with the Aborigines in the Sydney area.
The inexperienced settlers found it hard to farm on the harsh land, which made farming difficult within the colony. It almost collapsed due to starvation, lack of adequate equipment and lack of appropriate shelter.
In 1790 the Second Fleet arrived, which possibly may have been the reason why the colony survived, but even then, times were still difficult. However, by the time Captain Phillip left the colony, the young settlement was almost able to fend for itself and support the increasing population.
By 1850, most of New South Wales had been opened and small settlements as well as small towns were established. There was lots of convict as well as ex-convict labour going on in New South Wales, and often whole families would be working.
New South Wales
The first explorer of Van Diemen's Land was Abel Tasman. In 1853, Van Diemen's Land was changed to Tasmania after Abel Tasman's surname. The first European settlement in Van Diemen's Land was in 1803 at Risdon Cove on the Derwent River. Lieutenant John Bowen arrived from New South Wales and was carrying 50 passengers on his boat, of which half were convicts.
The settlement was joined by over 400 convicts as well as colonists during early 1804. Lieutenant David Collins, the leader of the expedition, moved the settlement to Hobart from Risdon. From then on, he took responsibility for the colony instead of Lieutenant John Bowen.
Hobart went on to be established as a penal colony, and was one of the harshest convict settlements.
During the next 20 years, the colony in Van Diemen's Land gre and blossomed. A sheep grazing industry was established, and sealing and whaling stations were up and running.
In 1825, Van Diemen's Land became a colony of its own. In 1854, it achieved the right to self-government.
Van Diemen's Land
The state of South Australia was founded in 1836. Colonel William Light was given the responsibility of finding the best location for the main colony within two months. The location must have included the following:
Arable land (land that you can farm on)
Ready internal & external communications
And building materials.
Light eventually decided that, considering all the above had to be accounted for, the Adelaide plains, on the banks of Torrens River, was the best place for settlement.
In South Australia, Adelaide was one of the first ever towns built.
During the early days, when the South Australian colony was still relatively young, the economy survived on sheep farming. When copper was discovered at Burra in 1845, the colony moved further inland.
In Adelaide, the Indigenous people were called the Kaurna. At that time, there were about 500 to1000 Kaurna within the area. A big difference between South Australia and the other colonies was that South Australia was not based on the saying of 'terra nullius' (the land belongs to no-one). This meant that the South Australian colony allowed the Kaurna to enjoy their land and did not interfere with this.
Despite this kindness, many Aborigines died of smallpox and typhoid, just like the other colonies. Others also suffered because they felt as if their culture, values and way of life were being taken away from them.
The state of Queensland was founded in 1859, which was the time when it was formally separated from New South Wales. Originally, in 1851, a meeting was held to consider the separation, but it was not until 1859 when it finally occurred.
When Australia will be federated in 1901, Queensland will have half a million inhabitants.
When the gold rush began in Australia in the 1850's, large numbers of Chinese immigrated to Australia to find their luck at the gold fields. However, these miners were often subjected to harsh conditions and racial discrimination, leading to the Eureka Stockade event.
The Australian gold rush had a massive effect on our country's economy, as well as the people who worked in the golfields (miners, or diggers). Edward Hargraves was the first person to discover gold in Australia in 1851, at a waterhole near Bathurst.
Due to this life-changing discovery of gold, Victoria's economy boomed. Soon after word broke out that gold had been discovered in Victoria, many people arrived to try their luck. They came from a variety of countries, such as Britain, America, France, Italy, Germany, Poland and Hungary. However, the largest foreign ethnicity to be found on the goldfields were the Chinese, who numbered 40,000. They made up 3.3% of the entire Australian population in 1861. There were many more men than women; 38,337 men, but only 11 women!).
The Gold Rush ~ Implications
People were starting to see themselves as different to Britain; they were less interested in British fashion, artwork, poems and songs.
The Australian National Anthem, 'Advance Australia Fair', as well as the sport cricket, created a strong feeling of national pride and individuality.
A sense of national pride
The very first human inhabitants in Australia were the Indigenous people, or Aborigines. It is estimated that they emigrated from Africa about 60,000 years ago, and immigrated to Australia about 50,000 years ago. The journey consisted of travelling through Africa, India, Malaysia, Borneo and Papua New Guinea, and then travelled by raft or canoe to Australia.
The Indigenous people of Australia - Before white settlement
The Indigenous people of Australia were deeply affected by the white settlements. They were dispossessed of their traditional lives and cultures, and became isolated and confused. Many Aborigines died due to clashes with the white settlers, whether purposely by fighting or not purposely by diseases such as smallpox and typhoid. Aborigines did not live the same way as the white settlers, and therefore were not accustomed to their strange behaviours. This clash of two cultures ended up as a disastrous Aborigine death toll, and more displaced families than ever.
The Indigenous people of Australia - post white settlement
The Eureka Stockade was a war between the miners and the authorities during the 1850's gold rush in Victoria. The miners felt that the rules that the government set were unfair. The rules were that the miners could not own the land they mined on, which meant that they could be located to different places whenever the government felt like it, and another rule was that the miners had to pay for a license and carry it around with them everywhere, otherwise they would be fined.
In late November, 1854, police stormed the mines to assert their laws more clearly. However, the miners were appalled and refused to co-operate, and they burned their licenses. Many miners were killed.
The Eureka Stockade
The most harrowing and heartrending scenes amongst the women and children I have witnessed through this dreadful morning. Many innocent persons have suffered, and many are prisoners who were there at the time of the skirmish but took no active part [...] At present every one is as if stunned, and but few are seen to be about. The flag of the diggings, "the Southern Cross," as well as the "Union Jack," which they had to hoist underneath, were captured by the foot police.
– The Argus, 19 December 1854
The Argus, 19 December 1854
500 miners gathered under the Eureka flag on November 30, 1854, and elected Peter Lalor as their leader. They promised to fight against police and military. After the vow, they built a stockade at Eureka and lay in wait for the police and military to attack.
On 3 December 1854, there was a massive battle between police and miners. The miners had planned their battle strategy carefully and well, however without the proper weapons they were no match for the police and military. Only 6 of the police and troopers were killed, however 125 miners were taken prisoner, many badly wounded, and there were at least 22 deaths among the miners and diggers.
The Eureka Stockade
Although the miners suffered many casualties, they succeeded in the sense that they did manage to change the way the government managed the miners.
In the end, miners were given the right to own the land that they worked on. Miners also had to pay taxes on the amount of gold they found, and not on the possibility of finding gold.
The Eureka Stockade
Peter Lalor and the Eureka Stockade
Henry Parkes was the original person to have the idea of Federation. Unfortunately, he would not live to see his dream realised.
Sir Edmund Barton
Before the process of creating a new nation, borders were drawn to show where each colony was. These borders changed over time as new colonies were created. Here is a timeline of Australia's changing borders.
Australia's Changing Borders
In the 1860's, the Victorian government realised that goods from overseas and the other colonies were being produced at a cost that Victoria's industries simply could not equal. Because of this problem, Victoria's government put a tariff on all incoming goods, so people would be prompted to buy goods locally instead of from other colonies and internationally.
However, the tariffs caused tension between the colonies. New South Wales especially was opposed to tariffs.
Art was an important part for people to develop a new sense of identity which was different to their previous ones. The new settlers used art to express their views, opinions and feelings of the land.
Identity was an integral and necessary part of everyday life for the White Australians. Some things that made up their new found identity was art, literature, education, and adapting to the Australian environment. These things created a new identity, disparate to their initial 'British' and 'European' identities.
The new white settlers who immigrated to Australia found a new sense of identity in their literature. Instead of writing poems about British culture and life, they began to compose stories and poems of Australian life and its beauties.
Some famous writers were Banjo Paterson and Henry Lawson. While Paterson specialised in writing poetry, Lawson wrote fictional stories as well as poetry, such as 'The Drover's Wife' and 'The City Bushman'.
One of the magazines at that time was called the Bulletin, and people used it to express their ideas.
Paintings of art from the 1890's about the landscape of Australia
The Australian environment was very different to the environments the white settlers were accustomed to. Back in their home countries, the weather would have been drastically different, and accustoming to new weather patterns down in the southern hemisphere would have been quite difficult. Apart from the climate differences, the land was also quite different to what they were used to. Normally, the white settlers would have homes and places to stay, but when they arrived in Australia, there were only Aboriginal people there who lived in the most basic sort of shelters. Therefore, the white settlers would have had to adapt to a different environment.
Education was a part of the white settlers' identity. To be able to build a new future, they had to be able to educate not only the children, but also the adults on how to start a new life in this new land.
Bibliography ~ Websites
Adb.anu.edu.au, (2014). Biography - Sir Henry Parkes - Australian Dictionary of Biography. [online] Available at: http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/parkes-sir-henry-4366 [Accessed 22 Apr. 2014].
Australia.gov.au, (2014). Australia's federation | australia.gov.au. [online] Available at: http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-government/australias-federation [Accessed 23 Apr. 2014].
Australia.gov.au, (2014). The changing face of early Australia | australia.gov.au. [online] Available at: http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/changing-face-of-early-australia [Accessed 23 Apr. 2014].
Wikipedia, (2014). Catherine Helen Spence. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_Helen_Spence [Accessed 21 Apr. 2014].
Wikipedia, (2014). Federation of Australia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia [Accessed 23 Apr. 2014].
Wikipedia, (2014). Henry Lawson. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Lawson#Poetry_and_prose_writing [Accessed 20 Apr. 2014].
wiliam, S. (2014). Impact of European settlement on Indigenous people, Mass migration, Becoming Australian, SOSE: History Year 10, WA | Online Education Home Schooling Skwirk Australia. [online] Skwirk.com. Available at: http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-56_u-426_t-1075_c-4149/WA/10/Impact-of-European-settlement-on-Indigenous-people/_tb-v [Accessed 23 Apr. 2014].
Bibliography ~ Books
Bibliography ~ Pictures
Map of Queensland in 1916
Wikipedia, (2014). Map of Queensland in 1916. [image] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_1916_queensland.jpg [Accessed 16 Apr. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/Henry_Parkes [Accessed 24 Apr. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._F._Archibald [Accessed 16 Apr. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Spence [Accessed 22 Apr. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_Helen_Spence [Accessed 16 Apr. 2014].
Anon, (2014). [image] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Barton [Accessed 18 Apr. 2014].
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vida_Goldstein. (2014). [image].
It would be wise for you to federate, because you can take the whole nation's ideas into account, and not discriminate against certain types of people (in this case, the miners).
Difference in class
In Britain, people were destined to stay in the same class they were born in. However in Australia, people can become businessmen even if they were born into a low class. This shows that if Australia Federates, you can make this a goal that everyone will have as one, united nation.
It is clear from all this that Australia must federate. It will be better for the whole country to stand together as one.
In conclusion, the advantages are listed below:
If you unite as one country, you can strengthen laws to keep non-whites out of the country.
One large nation will have a much stronger defence force than six separate colonies. This way, you can defend your country against attackers and invaders.
As one nation, Australia will receive one uniform rail and trade system, making it more effective and easier for the whole country.
If Australia becomes one country, you can abolish tariffs within the country which will make it a lot easier to buy and sell goods.
A united nation would be able to have a strong government which can help people in times of severe natural disasters such as drought and economic lows.
Lastly, if you unite as one Nation, Australia will gain a new sense of independence. The country will develop a new identity which will be different to their initial British or European identities.
Anagha Raviprasad 9M
Carrodus, J and others, 2012,
Oxford Big Ideas Australian Curriculum History 9
, Oxford University Press, Victoria. Viewed 19/4/14.
Pownal, E. 2008,
The Australia Book
, Black Dog Books, Victoria. Viewed 23/4/14.
Anagha Raviprasad 9M
We are one,
But we are many