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Qualitative Research I

This work can be cited as Howard, P. (2016). Qualitative Research I [Prezi]. Retrieved from philhoward.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial - Share Alike 4.0 International License.

Phil Howard

on 7 March 2016

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Transcript of Qualitative Research I

Qualitative Research I

1. Terms You Need
2. Qualitative Strategy
3. Negotiating, Entry, Exit and Membership
4. Six Types of Causality
5. Characteristics of Qualitative Methods
6. Concerns of a Qualitative Researcher
7. Variables and Sampling Strategies
8. Steps in Qualitative Research Design
Terms You Need

– the meaningful set from which observations are drawn
Unit of analysis
– what or whom being studied
– comparable and meaningful units; the more the better
– the permanent attributes of units
- Dependent & Independent
- NEW:
- A variable held constant in an attempt to clarify further the relationship between two other variables.

Qualitative Strategy
Qualitative researchers seek an insider’s perspective on the people, activities, and structure of the social world, believing that this perspective comes through direct, first-hand experience with people and artifacts.
Negotiating Entry, Exit and Membership
Peripheral Membership
- least committed
Refrain from participating in activities that stand at the core of group membership and identification
Ideal for potential dangerous research – drug, hate communities or smuggling
Active Membership -
Take part in core activities
Assume functional, not just research or social role in setting, but still serving research interest
Complete Membership
- Full immersion
‘good faith membership’, serving membership interests

Six Types of Causality
causal relationship is one in which a variable, X, is a direct cause of another variable, Y (i.e. it is the immediate determinant of Y within the context of the theoretical system).

causal relationship is one in which X exerts a causal impact on Y, but only through its impact on a third variable, Z.

relationship is one in which X and Y are related, but only because of a common cause, Z.  There is no formal causal link between X and Y.

They strategically choose a field site
, based on prior membership or interest in joining group activities.
They strategically choose a membership role
in the community they are studying.
They strategically interact
closely, significantly. and frequently enough acquire recognition as insiders.

4. A
bi-directional or reciprocal
causal relationship is one in which X has a causal influence on Y, which in turn, has a causal impact on X.

5. An
relationship is one in which X and Y or related, but the source of the relationship is unspecified.

6. A
causal relationship is one in which the relationship between X ad Y is moderated by a third variable.  In other words, the nature of the relationship between X and Y varies, depending on the value of Z.

Six Types of Causality
Characteristics of the Qualitative Methods
Small number of cases
Interested in commonalities within a category
Goal is to give voice or describe cultural / historical significance
Context is everything
Can make very few safe generalizations, unless case is well chosen.
Tends to generate explanations of cause and effect

The Qualitative Researcher …
…is concerned with the meanings people attach to things in their lives.
…uses inductive reasoning.
…treats a field site holistically: people, settings, or groups are not reduced to variables, but are viewed as a whole.
…is concerned with how people think and act in their everyday lives.
…believes all perspectives are worthy of study, but especially those who experience things as ‘daily life’.
…learns something from all settings and groups.

Sampling Strategies
Variation –
identifies a discrete subject and chooses cases to represent a range of interesting attributes within the subject.
Extreme –
selects the most unusual cases precisely because they help define a norm by being so unusual
Snowball –
individual informants to refer the researcher on to other informants, introducing bias in the overall sample
Random –
selects cases through some calculation that approximates randomness.
Theoretical / Purposive –
cases are selected for their fit within categories of a model

Independent / Causal / Input Variable
…is the variable used to explain or account for the changes in another variable.

Dependent / Outcome / Output Variable
…is the aspect or attribute of cases or observations that can be explained or accounted for
Steps in Qualitative Research Design
This work can be cited as Howard, P. (2014). Qualitative Research I [Prezi]. Retrieved from philhoward.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial - Share Alike 4.0 International License.
Philip N. Howard
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