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Becoming a World Power
Transcript of Becoming a World Power
To make America an empire they needed to acquire land, new markets, and to be viewed as an ally and a force.
New American Diplomacy
Continuing to make a big impact on foreign affairs the US solidify this with a few key decisions in Asia. Theodore Roosevelt also help bring the US to the Worlds stage.
By acquiring territories and taking important roles in Latin America politics the US was starting to be viewed as a World Power.
Due to high tariffs placed on countries many began to seek new markets. Europe had completed industrialism at home so some were looking for places to invest. To protect their investments they took control of the area.~
-Country that is independent yet controlled by another country.
-the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations.
America also felt it needed new overseas markets to keep the economy strong.
led many to feel superior. Going with Manifest Destiny they saw their way of government, ideas and character as reasons to dominate the planet.
Continuing expansion America saw going west was the way to go. Japan seemed a great place to benefit from for trade. Showing their force they required Japan to open ports for trade. This was made possible with
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
and four American warships. Impressed with American technology and firepower the Japanese realized they could not compete so they agreed to a treaty. Japan began to modernize and adopt western technology.
Now that they had open ports in Japan they needed a base in the Pacific to rest and get supplies for crews. Hawaii was a great location, already being used by whaling ships, it was settled by missionaries from New England. Settlers soon learned it was good for sugarcane. Plantations soon dominated the island. Due to a recession the US ratified trade that excluded Hawaii from tariffs, in return the US got exclusive rights to a naval base in Pearl Harbor.
Treaty=Boom=power to planter owners=Hawaiians lose control. McKinley Tariff now made American sugar cheaper which upsets Hawaii's economy.
tried to change the balance of power with a new constitution. Planters, back by Boston, forced the queen out and power went to a provisional government. Planters requested the US to
Hawaii. President Cleveland disagreed and tried to restore power, but local government refused and decided to wait until a New President was elected then tried annexation again. Successful in 1898.
Since America bought raw materials from Latin America, Latin America should buy goods from America. This would help Europe to see America as a dominant power.
proposed that US invite Latin American nations to a conference. By working towards peace and a customs union this would increase trade. This required all American Nations to reduce tariffs against each other and treat each other equally, this was known as
. 17 Latin American nations attended the conference but rejected the ideas. They did agree to create commercial Bureau of American Republic=Pan America Union or Organization of American States (OAS).
The organization promotes cooperation among nations in the Western Hemisphere.
Three events occurred to show America's assertive support to foreign affairs.
1. They were willing to go to war to stop Germany from taking control of the Samoan islands.
2. Once again willing to go to war when a mob attacked American Sailors in Chile.
3. The US back Venezuela against Great Britain in a border dispute.
all were solved peacefully
These events plus worry of being shut out of foreign markets led many to support a large modern Navy. According to
Captain Alfred T. Mahan
the US needed a Navy to protect its merchant ships and defend its right to trade with other countries. This led to need for more bases, for coal and other supplies.
Henry Cabot Lodge and Albert J. Beveridge
help to enforce the idea in congress by reasserting Anglo-Saxonism that America was destine to dominate the world, Europe's imperialism was a threat and the need for new markets.
By 1890 the US was becoming a top Naval power.
The United States defeated Spain in a war, acquired new overseas territories, and became an imperial power.
On February 15, 1898 the Maine explored in a Havana harbor. Viewed as a tyrant this led many to blame Spain. Cuba was in revolution for independence against Spain. Conclusion led a war where results had a lasting impact and help the US to become a World leader.
The US and Cuba were linked economically from the import of sugar and railroads. Once again when the US placed a tariff on sugar this hurts the Cuban economy and they rebel.
To help give fuel to the fight two New York Newspapers, New York Journal-William Randolph Hearst and New York World-Joseph Pulitzer, started writing sensational stories-
After reading about the cruelty going on many called for intervention.
Wanting to stay neutral the President asked if he could help negotiate and end to the problem. Spain reacted by removing the governor and offering Cuba self-rule but remain part of Spain. Cuba wanted full independence.
worried about American citizens safety President McKinley sent the
to Havana to help with evacuation if need arose.
The incident that led to fury was when the Spanish ambassador to the US-
Enrique Dupuy de Lome
wrote a letter saying the President was weak. With in the same time the Maine explodes and many blame Spain. Members of the Presidents political party had attitudes of aggressive nationalism-
April 19th, congress declared Cuba independent.
US demanded Spain withdraw or they would use force.
Spain declared war on US
Spain was not ready for war, but the US navy was ready.
One Navy fleet blockaded Cuba and another was ordered to attack a Spanish fleet in the Philippines. With the surprise win the US sent 20,000 troops to the Philippines.
War on two Fronts
As the same time Filipinos were staging a rebellion against Spanish rule, led by
The US took over Manila and refused to let the rebels in, this created hostility between the US and the rebels.
The Army was not as ready, lacking resources to train volunteers many died in the unsanitary training camps. 17,000 soldiers and a volunteer cavalry landed in Cuba on June 14, 1898. The cavalry unit was a group of cowboys, miners and law officers known as "
." Second in command was
-he had resign from his previous government job as sec. of war. Unsuccessful in two battles the Spanish retreated but were attacked in the harbor and soon surrendered. The US also took control of Puerto Rico. Spain agreed to a cease-fire on August 12, 1898
Now that the US had acquired land do they become the imperial power or stay true to the republican ideals.
Empire is Born
At the end of the war, what to do with the Philippines was a big question unanswered. Many believed the US needed to annex them to keep for more markets and a base for the Navy. Others it worried it would be to expensive and imperialism went against American principles.
Under the Treaty of Paris 1898 Cuba received it's freedom and the US annexed Guam and Puerto Rico. It was decided to pay $20 million to annex the Philippines. This decided the fate of the US becoming an imperial power.
Aguinaldo view this as an aggressive act. He attacked soldiers stationed in the Philippines. The US army used same tactics the Spanish used in Cuba, such as setting up reconcentration camps to separate the guerrillas. Thousands died in the camps.
was the first civilian governor of the island, he tried to introduce reforms, build new bridges, railroads and telegraph lines to help the economy. with policies in place to help eliminate certain diseases the Filipino's decreased their hostility toward the US. They were granted full independence in 1946.
It was decided to make Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory, this did not make them citizens nor give them any constitutional rights. It also allowed congress to make any laws it wanted. By 1917 they were made citizens of the US. Not until 1947 did they get to elect their own governor. It's still debated as whether to expect them as a state, an independent country or have them remain a commonwealth.
With Cuba's independence came a few conditions as listed in the
1. Cuba could not make treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence.
2. They also couldn't allow a foreign power to get territory in Cuba.
3. the US was allowed to lease naval stations.
4. Debt was to remain low
5. the US had right to intervene to help protect them.
Cuba opposed but like the US military close by so they excepted the amendment. This makes them a protectorate of the US.
Having served in politics, then in leading the Rough Riders, next as governor he was finally asked to run as vice-president with McKinley.
Originally chosen for his powerful charisma and heroic war record, many hope the powerless position would quiet his reform-minded spirit.
McKinley won on the slogan "four more years of the full dinner pail." Shortly after the election McKinley was shot. This made Roosevelt become the youngest president to take office.
Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family in New York and was known to be sickly. To overcome he mastered horseback riding, boxing, wrestling and marksmanship. Determine to make the US a world power he believed it was America's duty to shape the 'less civilized' in all corners of the earth.
Now with the third largest Navy and bases all over the Pacific the focus became commerce.
Diplomacy in Asia
Once war broke out between China and Japan over Korea, it was surprising when Japan won. This led to a peace treaty that gave Korea it independence and Japan part of Manchuria. This showed that China was weak.
Back by France and Germany, Russia forced Japan to give back part of Manchuria. They now forced China to lease the territory to Russia. Leaseholds allowed China own land yet the foreign government to maintain control. France, Germany and Great Britain each wanted a leasehold, which led to
Sphere of influence
McKinley and his Sec. of State John Hay supported the
Open Door Policy
, where all countries could trade with China.
Once Hay got conformation from all the countries he declared that the US expected everyone to abide by the plan.
A secret Chinese society work to rid China of all foreign control. After seizing foreign embassies in Beijing and killing more then 200 foreigners, an international force was sent in to crush the rebellion. This gave reason to divide the country. It was never divided and the US continue to trade with China.
Roosevelt agreed with the Open Door policy and even tried to negotiate between Japan and Russia. He didn't want any one nation to monopolize trade. At the peace treaty negotiation in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Russia agreed to recognize Japan's territories and Japan agreed to stop fighting and not gain more land.
Relation between Japan and US worsened, both wanted to gain influence in Asia. Both agreed to honor possession and uphold the Open Door policy. Show America power Roosevelt sent 16 battleships on a trip around the world, known as the "
Great White Fleet
" this caused some tensions.
Speak softly and carry a big stick-West African saying
Roosevelt believe if America showed its military power it would help promote global peace.
The Panama Canal Zone became a big focus to the US because of its ability to help save time and money for shipping. In 1903 the US purchase the area.
was signed in 1901 between the US and Great Britain. It gave the US exclusive rights to build and control a canal through Central America.
Panama was controlled by Colombia. They wanted a canal but Colombia did not. The US offered Colombia $10 million and yearly rent. Colombia refused.
Panamanian wanted independence.
They stage a rebellion with the US backing. The US recognized them as a nation and the two agreed to a treaty allowing a canal to be built. Many were against these actions. Roosevelt justified by stating that the canal shortened the distance from Atlantic to the Pacific.
Backing up the
Roosevelt said that the US would intervene in Latin American Affairs when necessary to help keep the Western Hemisphere economically and politically stable.
To prove this Roosevelt help the Dominican Republic when they fell behind on payments to Europe. The US help by collecting tariffs in the Dominican Republic. Many other nations resented this act.
TR successor Taft continue the policies. He focused more on industries then military. He felt this would help US trade and help Latin American countries out of poverty. This was known as
Imperial countries remove resources from acquired territory and expand market.
1. New Markets
2. Desire for military strength
3. Anglo-Saxon superiority.