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Roman History Time-Line

ENG 090, Section 654

Mark Hussey

on 28 October 2012

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Transcript of Roman History Time-Line

Feel free to edit and develop this page in any way that you see fit.
A couple of key requirements:
Put your name on anything that you write.
All words, ideas, and information that are not your own must be cited. Your reports can be added to the time-line according to their dates and/or connection to other events, people, and places. Why was Hannibal Barca intent on destroying
Rome during the Second Punic War?
~Sinai Bebo Welcome to the ENG 090 Prezi! 2000 2010 2005 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr Battles won by Hannibal Barca Hannibal:
Born: 247 BC in Carthage
Died: 182-83 BC Works Cited:
Lendering, Jona. "Hannibal." Livius.Org. August 23, 2009. http://www.livius.org/ha-hd/hannibal/hannibal2.html (accessed September 25, 2012). Born December 15Th A.D. 37 Why did Nero go crazy? Died: Suicide June 11Th A.D. 68 Work Cited: Champlin, Edward. NERO. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard UP, 2005. Print. On January 4th of 48b.c. Caesar crammed 7 legions onto ships and set out onto the Adriatic Sea in a suprise attack against Pompey

Work Cited-Freeman, Philip. Julius Caesar. New York, New York. Simon & Schuster. 2008. pg.269

"If fortune doesn't go your way, sometimes you have to bend it to your will." Julius Caesar

Work Cited-Freeman, Philip. Julius Caesar. New York, New York. Simon & Schuster. 2008. pg. 267

Chanel DuVall Imperator Ceasar Augustus Born September 23 63 B.C. Died 14 A.D. Ruled 27 B. C. - 14 A.D. As Rome's first emperor, he transformed the chaotic Roman Republic into an imperial autocracy. His consolidation of the Roman empire two thousand years ago laid the foundation on which Europe both as a region and a culture was subsequently built. If anyone qualifies as the founding father of western civilization, it is Augustus.\ Work cited: Everitt, Anthony. Augustus, The life of Rome's first Emperor. New York: Random House,2006.Print Brett Wagoner Gladiators
"Death smiles at us all, all a man can do is smile back"-gladiator.
-Before they were used to entertain and remember the dead at funerals.
-They then became more popular and Rome craved for more and were presented for other occasions.
Most of the gladiators were slaves, prisoners of war, and criminals.
The prisoners of war and slaves were auctioned off and put into gladiator training.
The criminals would be sent into the arena for execution, but as the games became more popular criminals were allowed to be trained for a better show.
The gladiators would be trained for 3 years fighting in the arena, and if they survived the next 2 years they would teach.
If you fought well enough, and knew how to please the crowd the emperor could grant the gladiator a wooden stick known as the rudius that granted the gladiator retirement.
The emperors would try to persuade the retired gladiators to come back to the arena by offering a substantial amount of coin,
Some noblemen wanted to be gladiators, but the fighting would not be to the death, only for show.
Emperor commodus claimed to have fought more than a thousand fights and so he paid himself one million sesterces.
Women were gladiators as well, they fought with the same weapons and gear. But they offended the Romans and were banned from the games in A.D. 200. Courtney Urban Watkins, Richard Ross. Gladiator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. Print. Citiation A Great, But Brutal General Hannibal On 2 August 216BC the Carthaginian General Hannibal won one of the most complete battlefield victories in history. Out numbered nearly two to one, his heterogeneous army of Africans, Spaniards and Celts not merely defeated, but virtually destroyed the Roman army opposing them. Kathy Campbell Cited Work: Cannae Hannibal's Greatest Victory; Adrian Goldsworthy, Pheonix Press 2001 The study of Roman armies’ experiences in combat has been undertaken
seriously only during the last decade or so, brought about
largely through the impetus of Keegan’s seminal The Face of Battle and
the application of his approach by Hanson to the ancient Greek worl

Richardson, Alan. "The Order Of Battle In The Roman Army: Evidence From Marching Camps." Oxford Journal Of Archaeology 20.2 (2001): 171. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Sept. 2012

Reis Lubitz Pompeii "The destruction of Pompeii and the nearby coastal town of Herculaneum is undoubtedly history's most storied natural disaster. The ancient Roman cities were buried under layers of volcanic rock and ash--frozen in time--until their rediscovery and exploration in the 18th century. Early excavators didn't much care where a particular statue or mosaic fragment had been found and what stories might be coaxed from them." Stewart, Doug. "Resurrecting Pompeii.. (cover story)." Smithsonian 36, no. 11 (February 2006): 60-68. History Reference Center, EBSCOhost (accessed September 27, 2012). "One of Beard's most interesting points is that even though we imagine Pompeii frozen in time, as its people went about their daily business, when Vesuvius erupted, it was actually a city in flight. Perhaps the bread found still baking in the ovens doesn't mean that the bakers were ignoring the volcano's rumblings. They may have been scrambling to feed a panicking populus as it fled the city." Lobell, Jarrett A. "Pompeii Before the Ash." Archaeology 62, no. 2 (March 2009): 14-15. History Reference Center, EBSCOhost (accessed September 27, 2012). Molly Hartman Nero experienced a very unstable childhood.
his father died when he was three, his
mother then raised him and his brothers.
Cauis Galgiula, took all of their fortune which lead
them to be poor. NER0 Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1994.Merril, Elmer Truesdell. Essays in Early Christian History . London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1924."Nero." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1984.The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol.X Cambridge: University Preston
http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/mediterranean/nero.html Rachel Thompson Eastern Roman Empire
Commander: Valens
Estimated Number of Soldiers: c. 30,000
Estimated Casualties: c. 20,000

Commander(s): Fritigern, Atlatheus, Saphrax
Estimated Number of Soldiers: c. 20,000
Estimated Casualties: Unknown Battle of Adrianople - 378 AD (SOURCES AND STATISTICS) Source: Thames & Hudson, The Ancient World at War, ed. Philip de Souza (Thames & Hudson Inc, New York: 2008) p. 203-209 Ian Stevens Training school The men who held the gladiators put them in a school, called a Lutus. The first lutus was in Campania, 100 miles south of Rome. The gladiators to be would first start with the basic training using wooden swords against a wooden post or a wooden man. After they mastered the techniques with the wooden man they would move on to fight with each other with iron weapons. When they were considered "ready' by the trainers they would train with real weapons to get a taste of what its like to fight in the arena.
-Within the lutus there were different classes of gladiators. The experienced to the new recruits and living arrangements were decided based on class standard. The job of the experienced was to install loyalty into the new recruits.
Once a gladiator was considered ready to fight in the arena they were added to the brotherhood and took the oath.
"I undertake to be burnt by fire, to be bound in chains, to be beaten by rods, and to die by the sword."-Watkins, Richard Ross. Gladiator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. Print. Types of Gladiators -Lacquearius: tried to catch opponent with rope.
-Dimaonaerus: Fought with two swords
-Eques: fought on horseback.
-Samnite: Heavily armored, high crest helmet with feathers, large retangle shield, and a straight sword.
-Hoplomachus: heavily armored retangle shield, straight sword.
-Thracian: Lightly aromored, small round shield, curved sword, leg guards on both legs stopping upper thigh.
-Mirmillo: "the fish man" helmet decorated in fishes, short sword, large round shield, paired with Retiarius.
-Retiarius: "net fighter", trident and net. Cord and weight. Only armor was on left arm with a flat shoulder piece.
-Secutor: "Chaser" would chase his opponent around the arena. Round crested helmet with round eyes. Right arm protected with sword. Large retangle shield and a metal leg guard. Venationes Venationes were shows that involved animals.
The animals would mostly fight the trained men called "Bestarii." These men would only fight with a spear, no armor.
Those sentenced for execution were sent into the arena to face lepords, lions, or bears.
Androcles was the only man to survive because he had previously met the lion. The lion had a thorn stuck in his foot and Androcles removed it for him. From then on the lion acted like a slave to Androcles. 218 B.C. We will look at the year 218 BC. Hannibal is 30 years old. . Lancel, Serge. "Hamilcar Barca and the Barcid Family." In Hannibal, by Serge Lancel, 6-9. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1995. He was soon made to retreat against the Romans when the Carthaginian council ran out of money to support the war. He reluctantly signed a treaty that handed Rome all the cities he had conquered from them. It is reasonable, as he was a proud military leader, to say he was bitter . This bitterness showed in the way he raises his sons, Hannibal in particular. It is said by Valerius Maximus, a famous Latin historian, that while watching his three sons play, Hamilcar shouted, "These are the lion cubs I am rearing for the destruction of Rome!" As revenge for his father, Hannibal attacked Rome. Lancel, Serge. "Hamilcar Barca and the Barcid Family." In Hannibal, by Serge Lancel, 10-19. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1995. The Romans believed heavily in their gods due to the fact that they based their religion on the Greek pantheon. they felt as though they took something that was great yet imperfect and made it perfect. The important gods like Zues, Hades, and Poesidon stayed but their names were changed to the name of planets like Jupiter, mars, and Neptune. The Romans would also build shrines in their homes and pray for protection from foreign threats. Although this was different from household to household. they felt as though their ancestors were protecting their home. my source says "[Every Roman family had a Lar, who was the spirit of an ancestor]" This quote means that every house believed that a different god was looking over and protecting it. Although the gap made by fall of the roman pantheon. Was filled by the sudden uproar of Christianity. Which proved to be the prominent Religion until the fall of Rome. Gransden, Karl W. "Roman Culture and the Aeneid." Roman Culture and the Aeneid. N.p., 1990. Web. 01 Oct. 2012. <http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/Aeneid.htm>. Roman gods influence A bust of Zeus/Jupiter Dillyn Ponds The sea Battles As the popularity grew of the games, so did the want for new entertainment. Man made lakes were specifically made to provide the Sea Battles. Julius Caesar was the first to present the Sea Battles in 46 B.C. Caesar recreated a battle of the Egyptians against the Tyree's. Nero was the one who decided to put sharks and other dangerous sea creatures into the sea just to make the games that much more exciting and terrifying. "The emperor Claudius gave the largest Naumachia (sea battles) in Roman History."-Watkins, Richard Ross. Gladiator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. Print. page 44. 19,000 men fought against each other. Not everyone died, Claudius predicted that the crowd would not like to see that many gladiators die in one game. A Naumachia was a once in a life time opportunity if you were alive to see one, you would do everything you could to do so. Naumachia Gladiators in Society Gladiators were in the lowest class of Roman Society. They were to provide entertainment, that was all. They were in such a low class that they were forbidden burials. Gladiators were basically slaves that provided the entertainment that Rome loved. "A boring gladiator was a dead gladiator."-Watkins, Richard Ross. Gladiator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. Print. page 48. It was possible to have a healthy happy life as a gladiator, it didn't happen often though. The gladiators were popular because it gave the crowd a way to release their own anger. The gladiators were "Disposable property"-Watkins, Richard Ross. Gladiator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. Print. page 53. The End of the Gladiators As the downfall of Rome started so did the ability to host the entertainment in the arena. The creativity for the games became dry, and repetitive and exotic animals were harder to obtain. When Constantine became emperor he declared the state's religion as Christianity in A.D. 312. The preachers of Christianity were trying to convince the terrible horrors of the arena. Constantine issued a abolishing act of gladiators in A.D. 323. The ones who were sent to the arena as a execution would be sent to the Mines instead. Constantine still could not stop the attraction to the games.
In A.D. 404 a christian monk, Telemachus, jumped into the arena and tried to separate the opponents from each other. The crowd went crazy and tore this monk apart. Literally. Emperor Honorius immediately and permanently banned all gladiator combats. The Gladiators Caesar and Pompey's battle for power was coming to a head on January 4th of 48b.c. Pompey's forces were far greater than that of Caesar's men. Pompey held the upper hand in the sea with a fleet of 600 ships and also on land with his cavalry being over 7000 strong. Caesar only had 1000 cavalry, but Caesar's men would follow him anywhere. Even if that meant going getting on a ship and sailing in the dead of winter across the Mediterranean in a surprise attack against Pompey and his men. Philip Freeman wrote, " Caesar followed his usual form and did something totally unexpected." Caesar couldn't get his whole army on the ships at hand and tried sending them back to retrieve his other soldiers, but by now Pompey's men knew this was what Caesar would do and stopped it from happening. After learning this Caesar tried his hand again at diplomacy.
Chanel DuVall “The army was not a faceless mechanism made up of disciplined and programmed androids executing imperial military strategy. It was also not an exclusive in the way we understand it. Evidence from around the Roman Empire, especially Egypt, shows that soldiers were often behind public buildings and engineering projects. They acted as administrators and policemen, tax-collectors, manufacturers and laborers, and even trapped wild animals for the circus. In other words soldiers did more or less whatever was required of them by the state” (Guy De La Bedoyere 101). The Roman army had a monumental impact on the character of Rome. Units in the Roman Army were proud of their service and the loyalty they the others had to their generals. This pride and loyalty is cause for most of the roman soldiers to serve a term longer than just a single campaign season, some would even make a career out being a soldier, one well know soldier was a Legionary with II Augustus, Gaius Valerius Victor from Lyons who served for 17 years. A high level of pride and tradition may be the cause for the military being the primary people to be most likely to transcribe there activities, wither it be a ceremony or victory in battle. The Roman soldiers were involved on all major operations throughout all of Europe they took. Roman soldiers would be Station for a long period of time in a location unfamiliar to them causing them to adapt and learn the local ways; the soldiers would then pass this knowledge on to other soldiers. This Brings the question of what other aspect of the Romanization did they have a part in. Reis Lubitz What were some of the fighting styles used by the Roman gladiators? The pairing of gladiators in the arenas were important and ironically the Romans expected to see 'fair play' in gladiatorial combat. Matched pairs of gladiators of would ensure that one fighter was hampered by heavy armor whilst the other Gladiator had only minimal armor which allowed freedom of movement. Gladiator Techniques, Copyright Roman Colosseum © 2008, http://www.roman-colosseum.info/gladiators/gladiator-techniques.htm Courtney Urban 358 AD gladiator dress The Dimachaeri were light armored gladiators they had light leather armor on their arms and legs with a tight fitting visor helmet. They used two swords they were called siccae they were 16-18 inch swords. The Dimachaeri were very skilled fighters using both a sword in the right and left hands. They used superior agility and constant attacks to bring down there opponent. A typical opponent for the Dimachaeri would be the Cataphractarius they originated from the German and Persian cavalry. There weapon of choice was the contus it was a large infantry pike. Spangenhelms were there helmets they were large heavy German made helmets, lorica squamata it was a type of scale armor worn from head to toe. They did not wear a shield. They would rely heavily on the protection of their armor and try to keep their opponent at a distance to skewer them. The Battle of Adrianople occurred in the month of August 378 AD, one fought by the Roman army and Visigoth revolutionaries. Led into the fogs of war by the Emporer Valens, the Roman military began with close to 20,000 troops marching against the 30,000 Gothic rebels that were under the rule of Fritigern. Rome believed that their effective tactics and superior weaponry would be more than enough to defeat the rebels, but Valens was greatly misinformed on the condition of the Gothic army and did not account for their equipment, strength, and powerful motivation. This historic battle eventually erupted close to eight miles north of Adrianople, located in the Roman territory of Thracia, and ultimately resulted in a great loss for Rome and an overwhelming victory for the Visigoths. History This historic battle is seen as the beginning of the downfall of the Roman Empire that occurred in the 5th century. It was started by a promise that Rome made to the Goths that fled from the invading Huns, leading the fearful society to believe that they would be welcomed and helped to become farmers and soldiers in the new Roman Empire. However, when the Visigoths arrived and were struck by the incredible dishonesty of the leaders and mistreatment of their people, Fritigern could not stand idle to the torments and hardships of his people and revolted against the corrupt Romans. Fueled by broken promises and spirits of vengeance, the Visigoths defeated their Roman superiors and caused the emperor Valens to react. Valens decided to take control of the military directly and marched towards Adrianople to confront the Gothic revolutionaries. Due to the false intelligence that Valens received and his misplaced confidence in the numbers of his army, the Visigoths defeated the Romans ultimately by flanking them from the right and left sides with a portion of their calvary and won. Background Nero Nero did not have a great life growing up. he faced alot of struggles when young and also while he become emperor His granfather used to use animals for brawls just to watch them kill eachother. His father was also a drunk and would do cruel things to other human beings. Two Years after Nero was born his uncle banished his mom and him adn took all of there money. After his mother married her her Uncle Nero, a couple years later, became the emperor. His mother also killed her husband at the time so Nero could rule with no one telling him what to do. His mother, Agripinna, wanted to rule Rome with her son, but Nero did not like that. He tried to have her killed twice and succeded the second time. He sent people into her villa home and had her stabbed to death. In Neros first couple years of ruling he was known as one of the best rulers, he lowered taxes and made it a "happy" place for the Romans to live. After Nero killed his mom that is when things turned for the worst. He started to go to different countries and participate is the Olympics so that he could win all the gold and prove that he is the best athlete. The one that started to get the towns people against Nero was the Fire of Rome. Townspeople believed that Nero set the town on fire,since he was away when Rome caught on fire. He also replaced everything that was burnt into memories of him. He blamed this act on the new group the christians. He then took some group members and tortured them until death. Nero also killed not only his mom but another loved one, his wife, he kicked her in the stomach so hard that she then passed. He also made a little boy cut off his genitals so taht he would become a "girl" and played as Nero's wife. This is just some of what Nero did, he did so many terrible and crazy things to people and not even all of them are accounted for. The most famous of the Barcid family consists of Hannibal, his father Hamilcar and his brother-in-law Hasdrubal.Depending on your source, his brothers Hasdrubal and Mago will be mentioned also. Hannibal is the son of Hamilcar Barca, a strong military leader descending from a long line of military leaders Halmicar's first heroic deeds are mentioned when he takes control of the Carthage army during the First Punic War (264-241 BC). This war had been going on for 17 years already. With swiftness, Hamilcar attacks and conquers multiple Roman cities. Hamilcar He received a favorable answer when they offered him supplies and reinforcements. In 218, Hannibal sent agents to speak to the Gauls, an independent group that Rome feared, because they too were expanding. This was in preparation for an attack against Rome's heart, Italy. In the earlier years of the roman military they did not see a need for a uniformed troop as they were only serving for a single campaign. At the call of duty troops would show up in whatever they deemed fit, any uniforms or armor that they may have had they either had to purchase for themselves, inherit it, or recover from a fallen enemy. Not till the Generals started to see a trend of troops serving longer terms and the benefit of wearing a common and unified uniform did they start to issue a uniforms and armor; wither the cost was cover by the government or most likely deducted from each soldiers pay. As the ranks surged back and forth, the flashing of their armor which was magnificently embellished with gold and silver, and the colors of their Median and Scythian cloaks mingling with gleaming bronze and iron, presented a radiant and formidable appearance’ (Plutarch, Sulla 12). “However, decorations were as much a part of a soldier’s identity as his military equipment, and like the centurion’s transverse crest were a public statement of status and courage. Wearing them in battle might have helped to bolster an individual’s courage with the memory of earlier successful actions in which the decorations were earned, and are likely to have provided inspiration to others” [Kate Gilliver 20] Polybius notes that helmet crests provided an illusion of height, claiming that the helmet with its 18-inch crest of feathers, along with the rest of his equipment, made the legionary seem twice his real height, giving him a striking aspect and appearing terrifying to the enemy (Polybius 6.23.13) The Use of Uniforms Reis Lubitz The leaders.
Commanded by Leagtus Legionis: a man of senatorial status who was literally the ‘delegate’ of the emperor
Second in command was one of six the senior tribune and like his senior was of senatorial rank.
The other five tribunes were of equestrian rank and commanded the Auxiliaries, and might have been promoted to the position of senior tribune after commanding an auxiliary command or serving in a civilian administration.
Third in command was the Praefectus Castrorum, “perfect for the camp’ who supervised all the daily tasks of the troops.
Unite Organization.
The roman Army consisted of Legions that were fulfilled by Roman citizens. The Legions were then divided into 10 Cohorts. The first nine of ten Coharts consisted of six Centuries, while the tenth one had five double centuries.
The basic unit was the Centuria or ‘Century’ meaning literally‘100’. Though the term Centuria was not an exact number that they used; for each Century consisted of eight tent parties or ‘Contubernia’ with eight men per tent, and 16 men on constant guard making the centuria’s total number being 80 troops.
The Auxiliary was the Part of the army that was made up of infantry and cavalry. The auxiliary is where the Non-Roman citizens served. They would however, be granted Roman citizenship if they displayed a special valor or if they were honorably discharged after 25 years of service then they would be granted citizenship upon retirement. The size of the auxiliary units varied based on necessity. The Infrastructure Reis Lubitz Marching camps
Marching camps where temporary forts built to resemble the normal permanent camp. These camps where put up quickly. The camps where designed to house to legions and an equally sized Auxiliary unit. Polybius provides an account of one of these forts that was estimated to be square measuring 2,017 roman feet (1,955 ft.) on each side making it 89 acres. The camps where built around the commanding officers tents in a grid format. Each camp was built the same as so the troops would know there place and job for better efficiency. Due to the simplicity and commonality to each camp they were easy to assemble and could be accomplished with a lack of communication or under duress.
Permanent Forts
The permanent camps were the template that the marching camps were designed around. No two Permanent camps were the same they all had the same rectangular shape and had grid style roads running through it. The reason for the differences in each permanent fort differed due to location, resources, and who it was that designed it. The major resource used to assembly the fort was lumber, later on they started to use stone to build some camps. Military Installlations Reis Lubitz This picture shows what created the animosity between Carthage and Rome. Rome was an established world power, but slowly & surely Carthage was encroaching upon their territory. Work citied.
De La Bedoyere, Guy. Roman Britain. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006. Print.
Gilliver, K. "Display in Roman Warfare: The Appearance of Armies and Individuals on the Battlefield." War in History 14.1 (2007): 1-21. Print.
Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith., and John Keegan. Roman Warfare. London: Cassell, 2000. Print.
McKay, John P., Bennet D. Hill, John Buckler, Clare H. Crowston, Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, and Joe Perry. A History of Western Society. 10th ed. Vol. 1. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. Print.
Paterculus, Velleius. The Roman History. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2011. Print. Hannibal's Training Jacobs, William J. "Hamilcar and Son." In Hannibal: An African Hero, by William J. Jacobs, 16-17. United States of America: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. Lancel, Serge. "Hamilcar Barca and the Barcid Family." In Hannibal, by Serge Lancel, 7. Massachusetts : Blackwell, 1995. At nine years old, Hannibal is observing his father make an offering to the god, Baal, and his father makes him promise to never befriend the Romans. We are also told that it is here that Hannibal begs his father to take him with him on an expedition to capture Spain. Carey, Brian Todd. "The Early Campaigns of Hannibal." In Hannibal's Last Battle: Zama & the Fall of Carthage, by Brian Todd Carey, 39-40. Pennsylvania: Westholme, 2008. Please STOP @:30. A girl will begin to speak. This video shows: Hannibal taking the vow to hate the Romans. Hannibal at the Gates Carey, Brian Todd. "The Early Campaigns of Hannibal." In Hannibal's Last Battle: Zama & the Fall of Carthage, by Brian Todd Carey, 43-44. Pennsylvania: Westholme, 2008. Hannibal leaves Carthage in the early spring of 218 and will have to pass through a mountain range, starvation, multiple ambushes, spies, sickness and death before he reaches his enemy's soil. Multiple victories are his and the Roman capital is twenty days away when Hannibal decides to quit. Brian Todd Carey, Joshua B. Allfree and John Cairns, Hannibal’s Last Battle: Zama & the Fall of Carthage, (South Yorkshire: Westholme, 2008), 69. gladiator dress
* protection/arena wear- armor, Manicae (wraps of leather and cloth for arm and wrist padding), balteus (sword blet), Cingulum (wide leather belt which was to protect the gladiators waistline from being injured, often metal plates), Fascia (protective leg wear, band of material, or skin, or leather), Galerus (metal shoulder guard), Subarmallis (padded linen worn under armor to prevent chaffing, provided extra protection), and the ocrea ( protecting all of the front leg). "Gladiators Clothing." Gladiators Clothing. Roman Colosseum Privacy Statement, 2008. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-clothing/gladiators-clothing.htm>. lani forte gladiator everyday wear:
gladiators would wear tunics around town when training or just for wearing. it would usually be something cheap, and not super flashy and expensive. their wear for everyday was similar to their protection wear. tunics gladiators
Champlin, Edward. Nero. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
Carandini, Andrea. Rome: Day One. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Snyder, James D. The Faith and the Power: The Inspiring Story of the First Christians & How They Survived the Madness of Rome: A First Century History. Jupiter, FL: Pharos Books, 2002. Source: Chester G. Starr, A History of the Ancient World, (Oxford Press, New York: 1991) p. 672, 675, 678 Source: D. Brendan Nagle, The Ancient World: A Social and Cultural history, (Pearson Education Inc, New Jersey: 2006) p. 382 Hannibal Barka

The Beginning Born to General Hamilcar Barca in 247 BC was his oldest son Hannibal Barca. Who would grow to be known as the greatest general in Cartiaginian. At the time of his birth, Carthagehis home country, was about to lose a very important war. Rome would seize Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica leaving a lasting impression on the general's young son that would lay way to Hannibal's future accomplishments and defeats. Work cited: Goldsworthy, Adrian, Cannae Hannibal's Greatest Victory,Great Britian: Pheonix Publishing 2007 Kathy Campbell Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on December 15th, 37 A.D. to his mother and father Agrippina the Younger and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. His father, who was a drunkard and was also very brutal to Nero’s mother, ran over a child for his own amusement with a chariot. Nero was born during the rule of his uncle Gaius and had an unstable childhood due to his family being exiled when he was 2 years of age, while his uncle stole his family’s wealth. Sometime during the third year of Nero’s life his father died from edema leaving Nero and his mother on their own to live a poor life in exile. So as you all know this is not a relable
source but I thought it was a funny movie to kind of introduse Emperor Nero to get a good laugh. Enjoy caitlin Reeb Caitlin Reeb When Gaius died in 41 AD Claudius, Nero’s maternal uncle became emperor and restored all the property that Gaius took from him and his mother during his reign.After Nero’s father’s death, Nero and his mother were allowed to go back to Rome where Agrippina married her cousin, Claudius, and became empress to Rome. Claudius had two children from his previous marriage to Valeria Messalina, daughter, Claudia Octavia and a son, first named Tiberius Claudius Germanicus and later known as Britannicus. After some convincing from Agrippina, Nero at age 13, still at that time known as Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus was adopted by his uncle Claudius, pushing Britannicus out of the line to become emperor. After the time of Nero’s adoption, Octavia, was removed from the family and adopted by another so that she and Nero, who were now siblings, could be married. Their engagement was how ever put on hold because Octavia was betrothed to another, Silanus, who was accused and convicted of incest with his sister and deemed no longer fit to be married to the emperor’s daughter. When he was 14, Nero and Octavia were married in 53 A.D. Nero entered the senate at the age of 14 as well. The Battle of Pharsalus was a key victory for Caesar, greatly outnumbered by Pompey, he planned a strategic attack, which helped in marking an end to the Roman Empire. Pompey fled to Egypt where he thought he would be safe. Unfortunately, he found no such welcoming. He was murdered by King Ptolemy. By doing this the King had hoped the murder demonstrated his allegiance to Caesar. When Caesar arrived in Egypt he was given a sack with Pompey's head.
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