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Chapter 25: Africa and the Atlantic World

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Maury Izzett

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 25: Africa and the Atlantic World

Chapter 25
Africa and the Atlantic World
Sunni Ali
Songhay Administration
Vasco de Gama
Kingdom of Ndongo/Angola
Queen Nzinga
Fulani
Antonian Movement
Dona Beatriz
Triangular Trade
Middle Passage
Cash Crops
Olaudah Equiano
Mali empire weakens in 15th century, expansive state Songhay takes over
based in Gao (soon-to-be capital)
Sunni Ali began conquering neighboring states
elaborate administration and military apparatus
imperial navy controlled Niger River (important commercial highway)
Muslim emperors; Ali still consulted Pagan diviners
elaborate administration and military apartus
governors oversaw princes; hierarchy of command
army was effective military force
imperial navy controlled Niger River (important commercial highway)
Muslim emperors for better diplomatic and commercial relations
had conflict with Mozambique and Mombasa on his way up east African coast
on his second voyage to India forced ruler of Kilwa to pay tribute
massive Portuguese naval expedition subdued Swahili city-states from Sofala to Mombasa
built administrative centers at Mozambique and Malinda
disrupted trade along east African coast; decline of Swahili city-states
principal state in sub-Saharan Africa
Portuguese developed slave trade with Ndongo (African for "king"
Portuguese called the state "Angola"
gained wealth and name recognition by trading directly with Portuguese
Portuguese merchants founded a colony in the region, slowly expanded influence
Queen Nzinga resisted the Portuguese forces, but after her death Portuguese took over
ruler of Angola
came from long line of warrior kings
dressed as a male, requested she be called "king", had males dressed as girls accompany her
allied with central Africans and Dutch
attempted to keep Portuguese out of her territory
was successful until her death
purity of Islam in Africa should be preserved
originally pastoralists; established military campaigns to build states
strict adherence to sharia
established schools; taught Quran and doctrine
heavily offended by immodest women
syncretic cult in Kongo as early as 18th century
Dona Beatriz claimed St. Anthony had possessed her and wanted her to communicate his messages
St. Anthony was 13th century missionary and preacher
Dona worked miracles and cured diseases
claimed Jesus was black, Kongo was holy land, and heaven was for blacks
missionaries convinced King Pedro to burn her at the stake
founder of Antonian Movement
named after St. Anthony, 13th century missionary and preacher
claimed Anthony had possessed her and wanted her to communicate his messages
believed Jesus was black, Kongo was holy land, and heaven was for blacks
burned at the stake by order of King Pedro
20,000 Africans challenged King Pedro
exchanges that took place between Africa, western Europe, and the Americas through the Atlantic
raw materials from Americas to Europe
manufactured goods from Europe to Africa
slaves from Africa to Americas
slaves obtained through slave raids
slaves were captured, marched to coast, lived in holding pens, boarded on ships
middle passage was trip across Atlantic
filthy, crowded ships; could sit or lie in chains but no standing
slaves attempted to starve themselves to death or revolt
crews forced them to eat and threw sick overboard (wanted to save them for profit)
25% did not survive
victim of a slave raid in which he and his family were taken from their home when he was ten
survived through the middle passage
served as a slave for 21 years
wrote an autobiography of his life describing his experiences
supported abolitionists
important in Caribbean and Americas; sole purpose of plantations
depended on slave labor
from Caribbean: sugar, tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton, coffee
high death rates and more men in Caribbean; constant importation
slaves encouraged to have families in North America
revolts
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