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Chapter 14: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500-1600
Transcript of Chapter 14: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500-1600
The Protestant Reformation
Emily Ferguson and Elaina Joseph
The Early Reformation
In the early 16th century a wide range of Europeans had grievances with the church and many people were calling for reform.
Europeans in the early 16th century were deeply pious. And people of all social groups devoted an enormous amount of their time and income to religious causes and foundations.
However evidence from the early 16th century also shows wide spread
Anticlericalism: opposition to the clergy
Critics of the church concentrated on the problems of clerical immorality, clerical ignorance, clerical
Pluralism: the clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time enjoying the income from each.
Many priests, monks, and nuns were drunks, neglectful of their vow of celibacy, gamblers, indulgers of fancy dress, or barely literate.
• German University Professor and Priest
• Augustinian Friar
• Through his study of Saint Paul's letters in the New Testament, he gradually arrived at a new understanding of Christian doctrine.
• “Faith alone, grace alone” -> concluded that only simple faith in Christ led to salvation.
• During this time, Pope Leo X authorized the sale of a special Saint Peter’s
to finance his building plans in Rome.
Indulgence: a document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, also widely believed to bring forgiveness to all sins.
• The archbishop , Albert of Mainz, had Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel, run his indulgence sale in Wittenberg.
1. The Christian church had experienced periodic calls for reform prior to Luther’s rebellion. Why did Luther’s challenge to the sale of indulgences spark such a startling revolution in European history?
2. Although the Protestant Reformation usually is interpreted as a religious movement, it did have a profound impact on European civilization in general. Discuss the political, social, and economic consequences of the Reformation. How did the Reformation affect women?
3. How did the established Christian church, headquartered in Rome, respond to the challenge presented by Luther and subsequent Protestant reformers? How successful was this response?
4. According to the text, Luther did not ask new questions but offered new answers to old questions. What were these questions, and what were Luther’s answers?
5. What were the political motivations for European rulers to join the Protestant Reformation? Give specific examples of the links between politics and the Reform movement.
6. According to the text, the English Reformation was an act of state, initiated by the king’s emotional life, and by dynastic and political concerns. How accurate is this assessment? What were the long-term consequences of the English Reformation?
7. How do the actions of both Protestant and Catholic leaders exemplify the basic political creed of uniformity prevalent in Europe in the sixteenth century?
Everyone needs Jesus!
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary Tudor and Philip II of Spain
• Spurred to public action by his objection to the sale of indulgences. Luther nailed his “Ninety-five Theses” to the door of the church at Wittenberg Castle on October 31, 1517.
• He argued that indulgences undermined true Christianity.
1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo ,Penitentiam agite etc.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit.
1. When our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, said "Repent", He called for the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
• Luther took advantage of the
by letting his ideas be published -> ideas spread rapidly.
• Luther’s positions brought him into conflict with the church and he was eventually
• At Emperor Charles V’s
Diet of Worms
in 1521, Luther refused to recant his beliefs.
• Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)= Most important early reformer other than Luther (Picture)
• Swiss humanist, priest, and Admirer of Erasmus
• Convinced that Christian life rested on the Scriptures (relied upon Erasmus’ New Testament) which were the pure words of God
• Attacked the Catholic selling of indulgences, the Catholic Mass, monasticism and clerical celibacy
• The followers of Luther, Zwingli, and others who called for a break with Rome came to be called
Protestant: the name originally given to all Lutherans, which came to mean all non-Catholic Western Christian groups.
Salvation: Faith and Good Works
Religious authority resides in the Bible and traditional teaching of the church
Sacraments: rituals where God imparts his benefits on the believer
Church - hierarchical clerical institution headed by Pope
Monastic and religious life superior to secular life
Clergy and Religious stay Celibate and those who married shouldn’t divorce and couldn’t remarry.
Eucharist-> transubstantiation: The bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ with the priest’s consecrating words
Salvation comes by Faith alone
Religious authority resides in the Bible alone
Only Baptism and Eucharist have Scriptural Support
The church is a spiritual priesthood of all believers, an invisible fellowship not fixed in any place or person.
Every person should serve God in his or her individual calling.
Celibacy went against human nature and God’s commandments for everyone. Divorce with remarriage allowed.
Eucharist-> Christ present in in the consecrated bread and wine as a result of God’s mystery, not the words of a priest.
Eucharist-> A memorial in which Christ was present in spirit among the faithful but not actually in the bread and wine.
Colloquy of Marburg,
summoned in 1529 to unite Protestants, reached agreement on almost every issue except an important one concerning the
, or communion.
The Appeal of Protestant Ideals
• By the middle of the 16th century, people of all social classes had rejected Catholicism and become Protestant
• Luther’s success and fame is attributed to the invention of the
, which rapidly reproduced and made known his ideas, and his incredible skill with language.
• Luther’s dialect of
became the standard written version of the German language because of his
translation of the New Testament into German
• Individuals may have been convinced of the truth of Protestant teachings by hearing sermons or reading pamphlets, but a territory became Protestant when its ruler, whether a noble or a city council, brought in a reformer or two and took action against the church.
The Reformation and German Politics
The Counter Reformation
of the Habsburg Dynasty fell heir to a vast and incredibly diverse collection of states and peoples, each governed in a different manner and held together only by the person of the emperor
• Charles V believed that it was his duty to maintain the political and religious unity of Western Christendom.
• Almost everyone believed that the presence of a faith different from that of the majority represented a political threat to the security of the state; few believed in religious liberty.
• Charles V was a vigorous defender of Catholicism, so it is not surprising that the Reformation led to religious wars.
• Pope Paul III (pontificate 1534–1549) became the center of the reform movement
• In 1542 Pope Paul III established the Holy Office, with jurisdiction over the Roman Inquisition, which had the power to arrest, imprison, and execute suspected heretics.
• Pope Paul III also called a general council to meet at Trent from 1545 to 1563 to reform the Catholic Church
• Results of Council: Gave equal validity to Scripture and Tradition as sources of religious truth and authority, reaffirmed the sacraments and the teaching of transubstantiation, suppressed pluralism, forbade the sale of indulgences.
• For the first time, great emphasis was laid on preaching and instructing the laity, especially the uneducated.
• The Council of Trent stipulated that for a marriage to be valid, the marriage vows had to be made publicly before a priest and witnesses.
• New Religious Orders founded to raise the moral and the intellectual level of the clergy and the people
• Two most famous orders:
• Ursuline order of nuns founded by Angela Merici
• The Society of Jesus or Jesuits by Ignatius Loyola
• Switzerland: part of the HRE but made up of 13 largely autonomous territories: “
• Some cantons were Catholic and others Protestant. Late 1520s, two sides went to war
• Zwingli was killed on battlefield in this war.
• War ended with a treaty
• To halt spread of religious division, Charles V called an
in 1530. Lutheran statement of faith (
n), presented to the emperor.
Charles refused to accept it, ordered all Protestants to return to Catholic Church.
Protestant territories in empire responded by forming military alliance.
Fighting began in 1546, Charles was initially successful, which alarmed both France and the pope, who did not want Charles to become more powerful.
The pope withdrew papal troops and France sent money and troops to the Protestants
• 1555 - Charles agreed to Peace of Augsburg: permitted the political authority in each territory to decide whether the territory would be Catholic or Lutheran.
No freedom of religion
within the territories, and dissidents had to convert or leave.
• With no further hope of uniting his empire under a single church, Charles V abdicated in 1556 and moved to a monastery, transferring power over his holdings in Spain and the Netherlands to his son
and his imperial power to his brother
Reform in Scotland
• John Knox (1505–1572) dominated the reform movement in Scotland and was determined to establish a state church modeled after the church in Geneva
• Knox persuaded the Scottish parliament to end papal authority and instead establish governance by presbyters, or councils of ministers.
• The Presbyterian Church of Scotland was strictly Calvinist in doctrine and emphasized preaching.
• England’s break with Rome arose out of
King Henry VIII
’s (r. 1509–1547) desire for a new wife, though ultimately his own motives also combined personal, political, social, and economic elements.
• Henry’s marriage to
Catherine of Aragon
had produced only one living heir, a daughter,
1527- Henry appealed to the pope to have the marriage annulled so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, who he hoped would give him a son.
Pope Clement VII
—under pressure from Charles V, who was the nephew of Catherine of Aragon and thus was vigorously opposed to an annulment—took no action on Henry’s appeal.
• Henry removed the English church from papal jurisdiction and made himself the supreme head of the church in England.
Some opposed the king and were beheaded, among them
, the king’s chancellor and author of
• The English church retained traditional Catholic practices and doctrines such as
confession, clerical celibacy, and transubstantiation
• Most clergy and officials accepted Henry’s moves, but in 1536 popular opposition in the north led to the
Pilgrimage of Grace
, a massive rebellion that proved the largest in English history
• After her Father’s, Henry VIII, and her brother’s, Edward VI, deaths, a Catholic
reinstated Catholicism as England’s Religion.
• After Mary Tudor’s death,
made England switch back to being Protestant and her reign inaugurated the beginnings of religious stability.
• Elizabeth I’s execution of the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, the person next in line for the throne, caused
to send the Spanish Armada to England -> The battle in the English Channel-> English Victory!
: Born in Noyon, France
• Believed that God had specifically selected him to reform the Church. So he left France for Geneva.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
(1536): the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity.
: Men and women cannot actively work to achieve salvation; rather, God in his infinite wisdom decided at the beginning of time who would be saved and who damned.
• Calvinism became the compelling force in international Protestantism, spreading throughout the continent of Europe