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Caribbean music

An introduction to Caribbean music for GCSE music
by

Jenf Waite

on 19 June 2013

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Transcript of Caribbean music

Caribbean Music
What are the influences?

What are the Instruments?

Rhythm!
Syncopation and Cross Rhythms
Use of percussion!
Call and Response
Singing style
Tonality
key based harmonies and melodies
Instruments
For example: guitar
Latin Percussion
Guitars
Drums!
There are numerous types of drum,
Congas, bongos, timbale are just a few to mention.
Shakers!
Maracas
Cabasa
Scrapers!
Guiro
Reco-reco
Claves
Gutiarrone
An acoustic Bass Guitar
Tres
A small guitar with 3 sets of double strings.
Cuatro
A small guitar.
Cuba
Salsa
Rhythms
Clave
Rhythmic foundation to Salsa
Syncopation
Melodic and rhythmic.
Latin Percussion
Percussion features heavily in Salsa music. Congos, Bongos,
Timbale, Cowbell...etc.
Tonality
Simple harmonies based on repeated Chord
patterns, usually based in a minor key.

Simple melodies

Lyrics are usually about love and everyday life.
Form and Structure
Call and responce

Simple melodies followed by
Coro
(an improvised section).

The different sections of the music are seporated by "breaks" which is a rhythm everyone plays together.
The Band
Features:
Vocals, rhythm section (features Piano, guitars and latin percussion) and horn section (usually between 2 and 5 instruments)
Awesome salsa bands include:
the Afro Cuban All stars

The Buena vista social club
Trinidad and Tobago
Calypso
Orgionally the national dance of Trinidad and Tobago
Rhythm
4/4 time feel with syncopation
a sample calypso rhythm
Tonality
Simple harmony, use of thirds
Form and Structure
Often uses Call and response

Usually songs with verse and chorus

Lyrics are usually topical, witty
The Band
Latin percussion
bass guitar
electric
guitar
trumpets
saxophone
drum kit
Latin Percussion
Voice
Steel Band or Pan Music
Often play calypso, but also classical and folk music
Started in the 1940's where the origonal pans were made from oil drums.

Now there are different sizes, the lead instruments are known as tenors or ping pongs. Other sizes are called alto, guitar, cello and bass (or booms).

The beaters are made from sticks padded with rubber bands.

Long notes are played by rolling, making a tremolo effect.
For up tempo numbers there is also a rhythm section with latin percussion including Tambourines and maracas.

Rhythms - complex and exciting formed by short rhythmic phrases and chords. Lots of syncopation.

Usually smooth expressive melodic phrases.
Jamaica
Mento
Mento is similar to Calypso, but it is Jamaican folk music
Characterised by:

Guitar, banjo and drums

Strophic form (verse repeating)

Light hearted lyrics of everyday life.
Ska
Starting in the late 1950's after independence, ska is a fast paced dance.
Ska is a fusion of American Rhythm 'n' Blues and mento

Featuring electric guitars and a horn section (trumpets, trombones, saxophones)

The lyrics are about local issues

Typically ska is characterised by jumpy off beat rhythms.
Today Ska has spread and it sounds like this
Reggae
Starting in the 1960's Reggae is a slower version of ska!
Associated with the Rastafarian movement.
The lyrics are often political.
The Band
Electric bass Guitar, electric guitars, drums
and latin percussion with horns section.
Rythm
4/4 beat with missing beat emphasis.

Repeated off beat quavers (1/8 notes)
Form, Structure and Features
The form is Verse and Chorus

Simple Chord sequences

Bass guitar riffs are at the center of the music.

Use of Dub remixing techniques, such as adding delay.
Delroy Washington - Freedom fighters
Rocksteady
Dance music that began in the mid 1960's
The Rhythms are more relaxed than Ska.

Beats 2 and 4 are emphasised.

Heavy bass guitar with a steady 4/4 beat.

The lyrics can be political.
Notice the steady bass guitar
and stresses on beats 2 and 4.
You can get it if you really want
By Desmond Dekker and the Aces.
Dominican Republic
Merengue
Orgionally the national Dance of the Dominican Republic, Merengue has African and Spanish influences.
The Band
Latin Percussion, rhythm section, Lead and backing vocals. Prominent horn section (trumpets, saxophones etc.)
Rhythm
Fast 2/4 beat, like a march.
Syncopated rhythms Played on a Tambora (a traditional 2 headed drum
Form and Structure
Call and responce.

Simple harmonies based around the tonic and dominant.

Mambo - instrumental sections.

Catchy melodies and rhythms

Lyrics about every day life
No Me Faltes Nunca - Cana Brava
Note the slick choriography which is also a feature of Merengue performance.

Also the fast 2/4 beat and can you hear the tambora?
Full transcript