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Transcript of Modal verbs
- Are auxiliary verbs
- They have different grammar. Ex: they have no –s on the 3d person singular
- We use before other verbs
- They work with the main verb to
add extra meaning to a sentence MODAL VERBS - ABILITY
- LACK OF OBLIGATION
- SUGGESTION POSSIBILITY - Present or future May, Might (+, -, ? ) - Past Might, May (+, -, ? ) Have + PP Could (+, ? ) + Have + PP Could (+, ? ) Example: I could have gone to the party, but I didn't OBLIGATION - Present or future Have to (external obligation) - Past Must (internal or strong obligation) Had to + Infinitive PROHIBITION - Present or future Mustn't - Past Hadn't to Can't NECESSITY - Present or future - Past Needed to Need to LACK OF OBLIGATION - Present or future Needn't - Past Needn't + Have + PP (You did it) Didn't + Have to/Need to + Infinitive (You didn't do it) Don't have to ADVICE - Present or future Should - Past Should + Have + PP Ought to /Ought not to
(More formal) Ought to * Had better/ Had better not (present) Threats and strong advice DEDUCTION - Present or future - Past ABILITY - Present Can - Past Could ( General ability) Was/Were able to ( Particular ability) PERMISSION - Present Can Questions Informal: Can Formal: - Can
- May - Past Could ( General actions) Was/Were allowed to ( Specific actions) (+) Must (-) Can't (+) Must (-) Can't + Have + PP Example: You can't have seen him. He's in London - Future Be able to Example: He injured his foot, but he was able to continue playing.
I couldn't find my trainers yesterday Example: Last night, I was allowed to stay out till midnight
I couldn't stay out late when I was a teenager Example: I had to study last week for the exam Example: You mustn't smoke Example: I need to get fitter Example: I needn't have taken my swimming costume (I took my swimming costume, but I didn't need it) Example: You'd better not crash my car, or I'll be furious! SUGGESTION - Shall - Could - Would Example: Shall we dance? Example: We could go to the cinema? Example: Would you go to the zoo?