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Presidential Project: Rutherford B. Hayes
Transcript of Presidential Project: Rutherford B. Hayes
Issued an executive order that forbade political assessments and forbade the management of political parties, conventions, and campaigns by civil servants because they neglected their official duties and were corrupt for the sake of the party and personal gain. This angered many Republican leaders because he was destroying their organizations.
Passed the bill that allowed female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes was born October 4, 1822 in Delaware as the fifth child of Sophia Birchard, and Rutherford Hayes. sadly, his father died two months after he was born. He attended school in Delaware, Norwack, Ohio, and Middletown Connecticut. He graduated from Kenyon College in Gambier Ohio as valedictorian of his class. He studied for a year at Columbus law office, and then went to Harvard law to school and received his degree in 1845. Hayes began his law practice in Lower Sandusky, Connecticut but found no opportunities there, therefore in 1849 he left and became a successful lawyer in Cincinnati. His opposition of slavery drew him to the Republican party, whereas before he was just an anti-slavery Whig
In 1852 Hayes married Lucy Ware Webb, and they became the proud parents of eight children: Birchard, Webb, Rutherford, Joseph, George, Fanny, Scott, and Manning.
Hayes joined the army in Ohio when the civil war began. He rose to the rank of a major general because he saw much active service Hayes was elected into Congress in 1864 while still in the army but he didn't take his seat until after the Union won the war. He was reelected in 1866, then in 1867 he was elected governor of Ohio. He retired as governor at the end of his second term in 1873. He was elected as governor again in 1875 and win his election, and then was elected as a presidential candidate for the Republican party The election of 1876 was considered a controversial presidential election. Hayes ran against Democrat, Samuel Tilden. Tilden won the popular vote. Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana sent conflicting ballot results to Washington because there were two sets of ballots with each party declaring its own candidate to be victor. Congress created a commission to decide the winner of the electoral votes. The commission consisted mostly of Republicans and they awarded the disputed electoral votes to Hayes. Southern Democrats agreed to back the decision if the Republicans brought back the federal troops that supported reconstruction and if Hayes had one Southerner apart of his cabinet. They agreed and Hayes won the electoral votes 185 to Tilden's 184. Hayes was declared winner on March 2, 1877. He took a presidential oath of office in a private ceremony in the White House, and then had a public inauguration on March 5. Northern Democrats were upset and claimed he had stolen the election. President Rutherford B Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes Hayes fought successfully for the passage of the 15th amendment that eliminated race as a qualification for voting.
Hayes ended reconstruction by pulling the federal troops out of the South because they couldn't afford to pay the army, Northerners were not as concerned about the blacks as they were in the past, and the Southern states promised to uphold the civil and voting rights of black and white Republicans. These promises were soon broken During the civil war national debt increased by 4000% Money couldn't be raised so the government issued greenbacks that caused massive inflation. Hayes solved this by building up the federal governments supply of gold to redeem greenbacks. This resolution along with a surge of business led to economic recovery.
Democrats attempted to destroy the veto power of the president, intimidate black voters, and enable city machines to cheat in all elections by forcing unwanted bills upon the president by attaching legislation to necessary money bills; also called "riders." Hayes knew these trick and promptly vetoed these bills saying that "every citizen has the right to cast an unintimidated ballot and having it count and that these "riders" was unconstitutional to force upon the president." He enhanced his power greatly by doing this The 1868 Burlingame Treaty with China allowed unrestricted Chinese immigration to the U.S. The people of California were angry that the Chinese were taking all their jobs. At a California Constitutional Convention, the people secured articles preventing Chinese from voting and working on any public project by California. These articles were refused by the Supreme Court. California then asked for a bill that limited only 15 Chinese passengers to a vessel, which violated the Burlingame Treaty. Hayes vetoed the bill but compromised by ratifying the treaty; regulated Chinese immigrants but did not prohibit them. After Presidency Hayes only served one term as president and ended on March 4, 1881. He continued his reform efforts though by being concerned of the minorities, poor , and the immigrants. He believed education and manual training would better anyone. He donated to the funds that provided better public education for Southern blacks and whites, and the poor school districts. Hayes was also concerned with prison reform and reducing crime. He was generous with pardons, and opposed the death penalty. He believed that criminals could be reformed through education, and that crime was a result of poverty, desperation, and wealth should be evenly distributed. Legacy Hayes is always going to be known for the disputed election of 1876, which is unforntnate because he was one of the most honest, fair, and respectful president because of his meaningful contributions in government reforms and minority affairs. Hayes died at age seventy on January 17, 1983 Fun Facts Hayes was the first president to take the oath of office in the White House.
Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission.
Hayes was the first president to travel to the West Coast during his term as president.
Hayes was the first president to have a telephone in the White House.
Hayes was the first president to have a typewriter in the White House.
Though other presidents served in the Civil War, Hayes was the only one to have been wounded - four times!
Hayes began the "Easter Egg Roll" for children on the White House Lawn (1878) - a tradition which still continues on the Monday after Easter.
Lucy Webb Hayes was the first wife of a president to graduate from college,
Lucy Webb Hayes was the first wife of a president to be called "First Lady".
Hayes' best known quotation - "he serves his party best who serves his country best." Inaugural Address, 1877.
His nicknames were " Dark Horse President" "Rud"