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Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments

Keynote EARLI SIG 6 & 7 Conference, Bari, Italy, 11 September 2012
by

Jos Beishuizen

on 22 September 2016

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Transcript of Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments

Shimamura (2000)
Mid-brain activity during focusing attention
Frontal lobe activity during selecting info in working memory
Posner and Rothbart (1998)
Maturation frontal lobe around 25
Resume
1. The Balance
Self-regulated learning in
technology enhanced
learning environments:
the balance between
structure and freedom

Jos Beishuizen
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Dept. of Research and Theory in Education
j.j.beishuizen@vu.nl

Students working
(1) in
technology enhanced learning environments,
develop
(2)
self-regulation skills,
(3)

individually
or in
communities of inquiry,
(4)

when a
balance
is found between
structure and freedom
2. Self-regulation Skills
3. Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELEs)
4. Communities
of Inquiry

5. Structure in the
Learning Environment

7. The Balance Revisited
6. Freedom in the
Learning Environment

In an environment that is supportive intellectually and socially, and with the guidance of a knowledgeable instructor, students will engage in meaningful discourse and develop personal and lasting understandings of course topics.
Communities of Inquiry
Participants in a Community of Inquiry present themselves als real people, by showing personal characteristics

Three types of communicative action in a computer conference: emotional, cohesive, and open.
Social Presence
Cognitive Presence
Teaching Presence
Participants in a Community of Inquiry construct meaning through sustained communication

Four types of discourse: triggering events, exploration, integration, and resolution.
Instructors in a Community of Inquiry are responsible for
a) instructional design,
b) discourse facilitation, and
c) direct instruction.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87-105.
Rourke, L., & Kanuka, H. (2009). Learning in communities of inquiry: A review of the literature. Journal of Distance Education, 23(1), 19-48.
Self-regulated Learning
A Framework for Studying Self-regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELEs)
A Model
Components
Self-regulated Learning
and Metacognition
Zimmerman (1998, 2000):

1. Forethought
2. Performance or volitional control
3. Self-reflection
Zeidner et al., 2000:

1. Cognitive component
2. Affective component
3. Motivational component
4. Behavioural component
Metacognition is the
cognitive component of
self-regulation

Beishuizen & Steffens, 2011
Nelson & Narens, 1990
Metacognition
Enhanced Interactivity
Enhanced
Authenticity

Saab, Van Joolingen, & Van Hout-Wolters (2006)
Martens, Bastiaens, & Gulikers (2002)
Akkerman, Admiraal, & Huizinga (2009)
Students often do not make use of cognitive and metacognitive tools to improve learning or self-regulation
Success in Networked Learning
How Successful are CoIs?
The Learning Environment
The Community of Learners
Level of
Analysis
Level of
Generalisation
Level of
Distribution
Behavioural
Strategic
Neural
Planning determines behaviour
Behaviour determines planning
Weinstein (1994, 1998): Successful learning determined by
Skill, will, and self-regulation
Skill: knowledge construction strategies
Will: Learning attitude
Self-regulation: planning, monitoring, focussing, evaluating
Model of Strategic
Learning
Three Layers
Boekaerts, 1999
Study Time
Allocator
Allocated
Study Time
Experienced Task Difficulty
Study Task
Execution
Koriat, Ma'yan, Nussinsson (2006)
Focus on Individual
Student Learning
Self-regulated Learning
in the Classroom
Zimmerman's (2000) definition:
self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and
cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals
Student control contributes to development of regulation strategies
(Eshel & Kohavi, 2003)
Teacher as model and coach important in Community of Learners
(Beishuizen, 2008)
Communities of inquiry: cognitive presense, social presence and teacher presence
Domain-specific
Strategies
Generic Strategies
Heuristic Strategies in Mathematics (Schoenfeld, 1985)
Comprehensive Reading Strategies (Palincsar & Brown, 1984)
Metacognitive Skillfulness (Veenman, Elshout, & Meijer, 1997)
Pairs of 76 secondary school students (aged 15 - 17) discovered rules in a simulation environment about collisions.

Instruction group and control group.
Four rules:
Respect: "everyone will have a chance to talk"
Intelligent collaboration: "clarify the answers given", "give criticisms"
Joint decision making: "accepting that the group, rather than the individual, is responsible for decisions and actions"
Encouragement: "ask until you understand", "give positive feedback"
The instruction improved:
quality of communication (describing and recognizing relations),
discovery activities (drawing conclusions) and
regulative interaction between the pairs,

but not

the learning outcomes
Variation in degree of authenticity



Psychology students studied
Why in a transport company many bus drivers fall ill

1. Authentic version with full student control
2. Text-only version
3. Authentic version with restricted student control
Conclusion:

Text-only version: better learning outcomes

Students did not perceive authentic learning outcomes as more authentic or motivating
The Mobile History Game

Authentic history game in historical centre of Amsterdam
Secondary school students (12 - 16)
City Teams and Head Quarter Teams
Conclusions:

City Teams had problems grasping the story line
Focused on practical issues (finding spots, communication, recording)

Head Quarter Teams created better representation of medieval Amsterdam than City Teams
Chen (2003): Review Networked Learning Communities
Interactivity
Collaboration
Meaning and
Motivation
Continuity
Multiple threads, simultaneously interactive structures
Diversity in expertise and cultural backgrounds
Real-life problems in authentic settings
Place and time independence
Access for disabled
Rourke & Kanuka (2009)
Failure of CoI
as Program of Research
No serious study of learning in CoI
Self-reports of perceived learning are inadequate
Questionnaires on perceived often have one item: "I learned much in this course"
No assessment of deep learning
Janssen, Erkens, Kanselaar, & Jaspers (2007)
Tool to visualize participation in CSCL environment
Groups of 3 to 4 16 years old students
Collaborative learning task
Tool available: students more actively engaged in groupwork
Many planning messages
No increase in group awareness and quality of end product
From Janssen, Erkens, Kanselaar, & Jaspers (2007)
Beishuizen & Steffens, 2009
Concept of Communities of Inquiry or Networked Learning Communities sounds promising but serious research into the value of CoIs is scarce, poorly conducted and inconclusive
Manlove, Lazonder, & De Jong (2009)
Upper secondary school students
Inquiring fluid dynamics problem
in simulation environment (Co-Lab)

Process coordinator (PC):
Planning tool: goal tree
Monitoring tool: note pad, hints
Evaluation tool: lab report template

Only planning tool did help
Problem: lack of domain-specific knowledge
Structured technology enhanced learning environments support self-regulated learning unless domain knowledge is at appropriate level and enough time for practice is available
Kester & Kirschner (2009)
De Jong & Van der Hulst (2002)
Distance course: hypertext on educational design
41 adult students

Conceptual support: concept map
Strategic support: flow chart and advice on next step

Navigation accuracy increased under condition of fading support

Task performance did not improve

Students did not invest enough time and effort to complete assignment
Bernacki, Aguilar, & Byrnes (2012)
Opportunities to learn:
TELEs adapted to the learner
Teacher provides instruction
Propensity to learn:
Pre-task training prepares the student
Online monitoring as source of feedback
Delfino, Dettori, & Persico (2012)
Student teachers
Distance course on educational technology
Blended learning with face-to-face meetings and collaborative online tasks in CMC environment

Interaction analysis of 1949 messages
Categorization in
Process: planning, monitored execution, evaluation
Component: cognitive/metacognitive, motivational/emotional
Social integration: individual/social

Gradual increase in evaluation messages
Gradual increase in motivational/emotional messages
Three representations of a text on fuel supply systems
Graph with horizontal and vertical ordering
Hints: highlighting to signal proper reading path
Control: Random layout of the nodes of the text

46 first year psychology students

Three posttests:
propositional (relations between concepts)
definitional (knowledge about individual nodes)
configural (structure of the text).

Paths were followed
Only graph improved representation of the structure of the text
No differences in knowledge of the individual nodes
Fading support contributes to self-regulated learning provided that students practice enough, but effects on learning outcomes are difficult to establish
Students working (1) in technology enhanced learning environments, develop (2) self-regulation skills, (3) individually or in communities of inquiry, (4) when
a balance is found between structure and freedom
What is a proper balance?
Future Research
Statement
Using ICT tools
Communities of Inquiry
Knowledge and practice
Fading support
Students often do not make use of cognitive and metacognitive tools to improve learning or self-regulation
Concept of Communities of Inquiry or Networked Learning Communities sounds promising but serious research into the value of CoIs is scarce, poorly conducted and inconclusive
Structured technology enhanced learning environments support self-regulated learning unless domain knowledge is at appropriate level and enough time for practice is available
Fading support contributes to self-regulated learning unless students practice enough, but effects on learning outcomes are difficult to establish
My Conclusions
Methodology
1. Blended is better than only online, do not forget the teacher
2. Structure the task, support the content
3. No self-regulated learning unless domain knowledge
4. No self-regulated learning unless lots of practice
5. No self-regulated learning unless structure is gradually faded
Research Questions
Process: Social Network Analysis, Neuroscience
Product: Learning Outcomes, Social Skills, Strategies, Behavior
1. Prolonged Practice
2. Scaffolding
3. Blended Learning Designs
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