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Group 2 EDUC 518 Concept Map Template

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Clayton Austin

on 12 November 2016

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Transcript of Group 2 EDUC 518 Concept Map Template

Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.


to complete the task of counting, in sequential order, from 1-10. This will translate into a high sense of self efficacy with being able to count unassisted in the future.

Candace Jones
folding a shirt is a performance assessment
summative assessment because they will be assessed at the end of the five minute time frame
Ana Wu
EDUC 518 CONCEPT MAP
All about:
concept map
ELEMENTS
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
For each unit, you will have one or more sets of sticky notes to use to complete your concept map assignment. Note that some units have TWO topics (e.g., connectivism and constructivism). Be sure to complete ALL of the stickies for that week. Use different color notes to differentiate between topics. Use lines and arrows to create branches that connect ideas to each other. Please do not rearrange the units, or it will be very difficult for your instructor to find that week's content; you may, however, ADD stickies, images, videos, arrows, lines, etc. as needed. Be sure to add any new additions to the path.
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
BEHAVIORISM
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
COMPLEX COGNITIVE PROCESSES
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY
All about:
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
All about:
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
CONNECTIVISM
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
CONSTRUCTIVISM
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
All about:
Psychological tools aid and change thought process

Teachers teach student how to use psychological tools
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:


ASSESSMENT
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
MOTIVATION & SELF REGULATION
Learning objectives are statements that address:
1. the audience of the lesson
2. the desired knowledge
3. how that knowledge will be measured
Given a maximum of two hints, a toddler will be able to recall their numbers, 1-10, in order, with visual cues, such as fingers

Candace Jones
Procedural
Given six pieces of embroidery strings, students will be able to execute the four steps used to create the basic Friendship Bracelet design.
Amy Schlachterman
Can one Learning Object feature more than one Cognitive outcome?

The teacher wanted to see how much his students had learned throughout the semester, making his test a summative assessment
Part 1:
This exam falls into a performance assessment. Snowman (2013) explains a performance assessment as measuring "what the students can do with what they know" (p. 312).
Part 2:
The teacher in the film explains that his students should be able to solve any problem similar to the one on his test, no matter where in the process they are asked to start it.
Part 3:
Because of this statement, the students are being asked to take what they learned and show what they can do with it (ie, solving the test problems). The test also falls into this category because the questions are open-ended
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Given a maximum of five minutes, a student will be able to fold an origami shirt using a dollar bill without aid.
Ana Wu
Is it unwise to present students with more than one objective per lesson?


How can we differentiate a cognitive outcome from a behavioral outcome?
Good work on this one!

even thoguh students may list (behavior) in an assessment the LO would say recall (cogntive) that is how we separate. the exceptin is when we are trulty interested in behavior (dribble a basketball)

An LO may be accomplished ober the course of weeks and not minutes, so any lesson may be worknig on distenct but realted LO';s

I think this is the answers to our questions
How are we able to measure their cognitive progression without first requiring a behavior or performance?
In the video, Mr. Kipp, modeled the behavior he wanted the kids to exhibit before setting them off on their task. This technique, outlined in detail in Classical Conditioning (McLeod 2014), leads to the likelihood that the students will be successful.


Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Scored By:
1. Objectives (multiple choice, true or false)
2. Subjective (essay)

Purpose of Assessment:
1. Summative (final exam)
2. Formative (quizzes throughout)

Comparing:
1. Criterion (against standards)
2. Norm (against other students)
3. Ipastive (against student's self)
Consistent With:
1. Inter-Rater (two scorers)
2. Test-Retest (two tests)
3. Split-Half or Alternate Form

Valid By:
1. Content (test to objective)
2. Predictive (test to another test)
3. Construct (test to theory)
Can comparing a student's progress with norm relative assessment ultimately damage a student's progress if he/she learns his/her ranking?
Making a Friendship Bracelet is a Performance Assessment. The students are being "graded" on the ability of following the steps to get the final product.
Amy Schlachterman
Due to the cultural irrelevancy of standardized tests, can we consider it to be subjective as well as objective assessment?
Behaviorism:
Focus is on behavior rather than cognition. Positive behavior is acknowledged and highlighted while negative behaviors are ignored.
Making a Friendship Bracelet is a Formative Assessment. As the students are making the bracelet, the teacher is constantly giving feedback and assessing their work during the process of completion.
Amy Schlachterman
Behaviorism is an incomplete teaching method in the classrooms because it does not take into account cognitive development, meta cognition, creativity, deductive reasoning, critical thinking, etc. It only focuses on a student's behavior.
Positive Reinforcement: strengthening behavior by presenting "positive reinforcer" after behavior occurs (Snowman, 2013).

According to Snowman (2013), behaviorism in a classroom is conditioning a student to either increase or decrease a behavior by positive or negative reinforcement.
Part 1:
This exam falls into a performance assessment. Snowman (2013) explains a performance assessment as measuring "what the students can do with what they know" (p. 312).
Part 2:
The teacher in the film explains that his students should be able to solve any problem similar to the one on his test, no matter where in the process they are asked to start it.
The teacher wanted to see how much his students had learned throughout the semester, making his test a summative assessment
Teaching a two year old to count from 1 to 10 in sequential order is a performance assessment. Since this task is the foundation for being able to count until infiniti, it would be considered a summative assessment.

Candace Jones
As mentioned in the "Main Idea" sticky notes, behaviorism is an incomplete teaching method. Regardless of that fact, should teachers still find ways to incorporate it into their teaching?
Behaviorism is a learned response. Can we argue that behaviorism is at least initially cognitive because they are learning a new behavior or response?
How can teachers reinforce specific behaviors and develop the mind simultaneously for disruptive students who refuse to listen? Should they focus on behaviorism first?

Tying a neck tie correctly is a Formative Assessment, because it is taught step by step. Progress is also tested in the Summative, because learning is assessed, upon completion of the procedure. Above is a demonstration.

Brian J. Keller

Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Part 3:
Because of this statement, the students are being asked to take what they learned and show what they can do with it (ie, solving the test problems). The test also falls into this category because the questions are open-ended
When learning the basic design of a Friendship Bracelet, students are verbally and continually repeating the four steps included in the process, which makes their behavior 'conscious' and not something of second nature.
Amy Schlachterman
Simply asking a student to fold a paper shirt in a time frame of five minutes may emphasize behaviorism. It is an incomplete way of assessing a student. Therefore, asking a student to think of alternate ways to fold the shirt, or asking the student to fix a mistake may be more effective in ensuring cognitive growth.
-Ana Wu
Learning to count from 1 to 10 as a toddler is not a form of behaviorism in its infancy. You must process visual cues and recall the appropriate word that correspondes to the visual aid proferred. However, over time, the action of counting from 1 to 10 becomes behaviorism because one is able to perform this action without thought. It becomes an action that is almost reflexive in nature.
Candace Jones
Properly tying a Neck tie is behaviorism because when we are given a neck tie, we must operate with our hands on our environment, to properly tie it.
Negative Reinforcement: strengthening behavior by removing an 'unwanted stimulus' after behavior occurs (Snowman, 2013).

Positive Punishment: decreasing an undesired behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus (Snowman, 2013).
Negative Punishment: decreasing an undesired behavior by removing a desirable stimulus (Snowman, 2013).

Positive Reinforcement is seen in the the "Morning Routine" video. To encourage students to continue to work hard, their teachers verbally praise them, while their peers clap for them and their recognized behavior.
Psychologist Jean Piaget believed people "are born with tendencies to organize and adapt," and used theory to create four stages of cognitive development (Snowman, 2013).
Stage Two: Preoperational (2-7 years old); focus on one thing at a time, do not understand conservation, unable to think from others' perspectives (Snowman, 2013).
Cognitive Theory surmises that learners gain knowledge through participation in hands-on activites. They construct their knowledge with an instructor as a guide, or a side line player, rather than the coach.
Stage One: Sensorimotor (from birth to 2 years old); develop schemas, or organized patterns of behavior, through sense and motor activities (Snowman, 2013).
Stage Three:
Concrete Operational (7-11 years old); have a greater understanding of learning, but thinking is limited to actual presence of objects and own experiences (Snowman, 2013).
Stage Four:
Formal Operation (11 and older); thinking is most mature; able to "deal with abstractions, form hypotheses, solve problems systematically, and engage in mental" manipulations
(Snowman, 2013).
(1) In the original lesson, the student was 21 years old, putting her into the Formal Operation Stage of Development. With her more "advanced" cognition, the teaching was altered to give her more freedom to understand the process individually.
(2) When this lesson is redone, the students will be between 7 and 9 years old, putting them into the Concrete Operational Stage of Development. While their cognition is "advanced," they will require more assistance with remembering the steps in the process.
(3) Because making Friendship Bracelets is not a common activity in China, nor is seeing them as a piece of fashion, students are will have to adapt the knowledge so it fits into a preexisting schema.
Amy Schlachterman
Learning occurs between stages of equilibrium and disequilibrium.


Memorizing the steps to fold an origami shirt falls within Piaget's concrete operational stage. They are able to fold and unfold each crease in their minds in order to gain the end result. How can we devise a lesson plan to support Piaget's formal operational stage with the use of a origami shirt?
Ana Wu
The student, in this instance, is a 2 year old toddler. She falls within Piaget's sensorymotor stage. There is little reasoning done at this stage, which makes presenting material utilizing a cognitive approach rather futile.
Candace Jones
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Tying a Tie is an example of both Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. It is Extrinsic Motivation because I, the teacher taught a performance to someone and they received praise from me because they were able to successfully perform the task independently after they were taught.

The boy may not have been aware of it, but learning the process of tying a neck tie had Intrinsic value as well, because the learner became more knowledgeable, competent and independent and able to complete the task independently, without supervision.(Snowman pp. 238)


Brian Keller
Are there any possible occurrences (where brain injury are is involved) where development can reverse back a step or two in Piaget's development model?
What plays a larger role in development, nature or nurture?
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
I wonder how Piaget's stages of cognition apply to students with disabilities. I'm especially interested in people who have suffered traumatic brain injuries or extreme abuse. Is it possible that the stages might not be mastered in the correct "order"?
Good work with stages Dr A
The instructor acted as a constructive guide by giving the students opportunities to experiment and apply knowledge for themselves. This knowledge construction is a more active method for cognitive development.
There is a sense of disequilibrium when a student tries to spell the word "cat" or "me." They use the word wall as a tool which helps assimilate the new information with their existing schema. This allows them to learn how to spell the word properly.
Amy, or how can you make it more concrete, like using manipulatives to teach math for example. Dr A 5/5
Good work 5/5
Behaviorist would not, cognitivist would say they cannot account for all types of learning
Hopefully Week 4 class addressed these questions for you!

5/5
classical conditioning delas with involuntary behavior such as anxiety 5/5
But consciousness is not behavior, you may reinforce ther repitition wtih priase for example
Like it 5/5
A behaviorist would say that counting is behavior. How owuld you use behaviorism (operatn conditioning) to do this? 4/5
It can be taught using behaviorism
but a task is not behaviorist 4/5

Put your name on it too
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Teaching a toddler to count from 1 to 10 in sequential order is a skill that they will use repeatedly throughout life, and thus is stored in short term memory. Being forced to memorize information, from an early age, on a consistent basis causes kids to come up with creative ideas for learning to memorize effectively (Snowman 2013), and I will encourage my toddler to create fun ways to remember her numbers in correlation to visual cues.
Candace Jones
Knowledge is not all stored in the same manner. Information is stored on the basis of how it was received, how it will be used, and for how long will it need to be available.
Working memory:
Also known as short-term memory, STM, is capable of holding around 7 pieces of information for up to 20 seconds before being lost. (Snowman 2013) One must do something with this information, or it will be lost.
Long-term memory:
This memory storage is believed to have infinite capacity to store information, and the information stored here is believed to be the permanent information of a person's memory. (Snowman 2013)
Sensory Register:
Memories that are created in temporarily in response to information received through one of your five senses. (Snowman 2013) For instance, wood burning during a camp fire, might later trigger memory of time spent in Boy Scouts.
Sensory Register:
More than likely the information has to be associated with one of the below to be processed in this manner:
* Personal significance
* Emotions
*Novelty
*Bright colors
*Loud sounds

Long-term memory:
Declarative knowledge - based on facts
Procedural knowledge - based on "how to" information
Episodic knowledge - based on events that have transpired
Conceptual knowledge - based on schema or concepts learned
Questions:
For content that students do not find applicable to their everyday lives, such as balancing chemical equations, how can one increase transfer when the connection to their daily lives does not exist?

Students learning to make friendship bracelets will be using their working memory. To help keep the information in their memory for more than twenty seconds, the students will repetitively say the steps for the bracelet pattern. Hopefully through this repetition and individual practice, these steps will be stored in the students' long memory in the "procedural knowledge" category (Snowman, 2013).
Amy Schlachterman
By asking her students what they already know, the teacher is creating possibilities for linking of new and old information.
Because the students are linking new concepts with old concepts that they learned at the beginning of the year, this assignments targets the "conceptual knowledge" category in long term memory.
Questions:
How does a teacher truly connect topics of racism or white privilege or bullying to students who have never experienced those situations? Is sympathy enough? Or does there need to be an element of empathy?
Experience with the environment gives a state of disequilibrium, which must occur for learning to occur.

There are two schemas that may occur:
1) Accommodation
2) Assimilation
Assimilation:

o When you learn something new:
1) disequilibrium --> assimilation (mix with existing schema) (further proveexisting knowledge) --> equilibrium


Accommodation:

2) Disequilibrium --> accommodation (does not exist with current schema)  change what they know --> equilibrium

Students use tools such as the instructor and the word wall in order to gain knowledge
Learning to make an origami shirt
will allow the student to store
information into the working
memory. This information lies within
the procedural knowledge storage because she is learning how to perform a task. If she teaches someone else how to fold the shirt, that knowledge becomes conceptual.
Ana Wu

Questions:
What is the most effective way to guide a student to learn and retain information when they clearly show no interest in the subject matter at hand?

By observing the cricket's anatomy and discussing it as a class, students are utilizing both their visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop in their working memory.
Using two channels allows more information to be encoded simultaneously. More information gets processed and enters long term memory.
Solid work eith Main Ideas 5/5
Twin studies, of identicals raised in different environments would say it is about 50/50 as measured by IQ tests....
injury or trauma could affect development is very different ways but not aware of studies of this in respect to Piaget
5/5
Good connectin of tersm and video!
missing theroy terms here
4/5
candace, but can you give an idea of waht happened or what will happen in your OTVR? 4/5
Good work 5/5
Individual Constructivism:
students learn best when using own ability to understand and sort information into schemas.
Teachers are guide and provide little assistance
Social Constructivism:
students learn best when working with peers and teachers to understand and apply information.
Connections:
connecting what students are learning in a classroom to real life situations
can be broken into different parts
Networking:
students have opportunities to work with others and build opinions and understandings with others
Decision Making:
students are given information and decide how the information can be applied to situations
students decide what and why information is important
Diversity of Opinions:
the internet provides an outlet for people of all ages and backgrounds to share their opinion
there are opportunities now for opinions to be seen and heard by larger groups of people
If a teacher wants to incorporate networking through technology in the classroom, can teachers allow individual cellphone and computer use during classroom time?
If teachers want to allow students to use cellphones for academic networking during class, would they have to get permission from administration first so they do not break the "no cellphone" rule so many schools seem to have?
In both videos, students were working together to create an experiment, showing social constructivism. The students were asking each other questions and building off of each other's ideas and suggestions.
In video one, when the students asked the teacher a question, she did not give the answer, but gave instruction on where to find the answer to their question. This provides opportunity for furthering research and individual constructivism.
The students in the second video created an experiment that related to a prior lesson in class. This allows for further and deeper understandings of already learned information.
Creating a Friendship Bracelet is a individual constructivist activity. While the students do receive guidance from the teacher, they are creating the design and the bracelet on their own.
Amy Schlachterman
Critical Constructivism:
"understand why learners from some cultural or social groups more easily construct knowledge in school environments than others"
help students who have difficulty learning in a classroom


Snowman, 2013
Counting from 1 to 10 in sequential order is neither individual nor social constructivism because the teacher, in this instance, is acting as the sage on the stage and not the guide on the side. There is no building of knowledge, as the lesson is presented. Knowledge is simply being presented , digested, and hopefully regurgitated.

Candace Jones
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Learning community: node, which is always part of a larger network.



Connectivism: a “theoretical framework for understanding learning (in which) learning occurs when knowledge is actuated through the process of a learner connecting to and feeding information into a learning community” (Kopp and Hill 2008)
Kopp and Hill specifically say that connectivism utilizes technology to build networks, but I wonder if networks could not also include other people who have the knowledge one wishes to acquire?
Student uses her extended family as a network.
She practices her numbers with her grandmother when going up or down the steps at her grandparents’ home.
She recites her numbers as she steps from one tile to another when her uncle as he drops her off at daycare. She says her numbers with her godfather when they count her toes as he paints her toenails.
She uses the collective knowledge of her extended family to fill in the gaps when she does not remember the next number, or as a corrective tool when she says the numbers out of sequence.

Candace Jones
Maybe this should go under Connectivism Amy - CJ
Individual vs. Social:
When students work independently, then come together as a group to synthesize the new information, which does this fall under? Can it be both?
Complex Cognitive Process: higher order information processing that requires that knowledge be synthesized , categorized, and/or integrated with prior knowledge
Transfer: a student's ability to apply knowledge and problem solving skills learned in school to similar but new situation (Snowman 2013)

Assimulation
Metacognition: knowledge about the cognition and how to use them to achieve a learning goal (Snowman 2013)



Thinking about thinking
Problem Solving/Critical thinking: Identification and application of knowledge and skills that result in goal achievement (Snowman 2013)
A two year old is still in Piaget's first stage of development, but she is right at the cusp of the second stage. In both cases, it is generally accepted that complex cognitive processes elude this age group. However, as her teacher, I plan to use transfer of student learning to reinforce our lesson on counting.
We will utilize every opportunity throughout the day to count and practice maing the connection between the verbal number and what that number represents, such as counting her snack or squirrels in the park.
Candace Jones
How does this correlate to Piaget's four stages of development? Are Complex Cognitive Processes only applicable to learners that fall under the Formal Operational phase?
Creativity:
Brainstorming techniques allow for the generation of creativity.
When creating Friendship Bracelets, students make connections when they make a mistake or are unsure of which step comes next. The student can ask their peer for advice or guidance if the teacher is busy helping someone else.
Amy Schlachterman

Can self-reflection be form of self-connectivism if the student learns and grows based on own research?
Because the basic design of Friendship Bracelets is very clear and repetitive, it does not seem that complex cognition is used. The students are constantly repeating the same steps, resulting in no self-creativity.
Amy Schlachterman
Students are encouraged to think critically by developing new ways to learn about the cricket and understand the scientific method. They analyze what they see, form a hypothesis and devise experiments to prove or null their hypotheses. Then they critically think about future actions they can take with the information they learned.
Students were applying the metacognitive theory when they were aware of their own uncertainty over the crickets behavior and devised plans and experiments to answer their questions.They thought about which experimental design would yield the best results before they took action.
Students were encouraged to be creative and devise new experiments to understand the cricket. For example, they tried to learn if crickets were nocturnal by keeping one cricket in the dark and another in the light and testing the difference in behavior.
Learning and knowledge are essentially the same thing. One is a process, the other is a product. (George siemens)
Knowledge is gained through social connections. Learning is an open network of peers to build knowldge-products
Connectivism: data or information that is connected, either by technology or social interactions in order to learn new knowledge.
Learning is a system and the knowledge is the product
If a teacher wants to incorporate networking through technology in the classroom, can teachers allow individual cellphone and computer use during classroom time?
The student is able to apply the theory of metacognition by thinking about how effectively she learned how to fold a paper shirt. Subsequently, she can think of different ways of teaching it that she feels is a better way to learn the material. -Ana Wu

As students learn to think about their own knowledge they are able to form strategies that allows them to tackle problems and solve them more effectively.
Triadic Reciprocal Causation: "behavior is the results of interactions among personal characteristics, behavior, and environmental factor" (Snowman, 2013).
Self-Regulated Learning: knowing and understanding when and how to use specific cognitive skills to enhance learning
Self-Regulation: changing behavior by own will to achieve goal.
Personal Agency: belief that individuals are the dominant reason for their personal behavior; seen in two capacities
Self-Efficacy: belief about own abilities to handle specific tasks
Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy:
Performance Accomplishments
Verbal Persuasion
Emotional Arousal
Vicarious Experience
2. Performance Phase: student must engage in task; student focuses on task, while processing information meaningfully, and monitoring own performance and surrounding environment (Snowman, 2013).
Self-Regulatory System:
Three Phases

1. Forethought Phase: prior to beginning of the task; learners set goals and formulate strategies (Snowman, 2013).

Self-Reflection Phase: student evaluates own behavior and effect it had on task outcomes; student analyzes areas of self-improvement (Snowman, 2013).

During the lesson, the toddler is guided by the teacher in the process of counting 1-10. The teacher models how to count (Observational learning) before the student even attempts the endeavor. The student, through practice, will gain a confidence in her ability
Student will apply the self regulated theory by assuming the teacher role while teaching the instructor how to fold the shirt. She will utilize the three phases:
If the students have high self-efficacy, or strongly believe they understood and memorized the steps of making the design, they will complete the bracelet outside of school.
During this lesson, students will be able to start a friendship bracelet with the help and guidance of the teacher. When they leave school, and no longer have the guidance of their teacher, self-efficacy will come into play.
However, if students have low self-efficacy, there is a chance that the friendship bracelet will never be completed.


Amy Schlachterman
How can a teacher help a student balance completely different environments? For example, if in school they are a good person who is kind and respectful, but have to be tough on the streets to survive.
How does having to balance all these different environments affect individual identity?
Students in the first video portrayed case-based learning. They read an autobiographical poem about a Latino man's experiences which generated alternative perspectives from students that was discussed as a class.
"Look here, it says Espanol. it means Spanish People."
Student pulled information from his own current knowledge bank as a tool to analyze the poem more thoroughly. This allowed the student to understand the poem more thoroughly.
As a group, students discussed the poem to learn and analyze in a social manner. They learned from each other by making meaningful connections and sharing opinions of the poem.
Knowledge is a pattern of connectedness (George Siemens)
Nodes: arise out of the connection points that are found on a network.

A network: 2+ nodes linked in order to share resources (Kopp & Hill 2008)
Learning is the process of forming and pruning these connections. (George Siemens)
During a classroom discussion, students are connecting their thoughts by listening and responding to passages on the text
Connectivism is originally seen when the assignment of "pair and share" is given. Students are going to have to share their ideas with another student in class.
The teacher encourages his students to listen to their classmates ideas and respond to or build upon them, creating connections of thought.

An example of this is when Abraham is called on and he begins his response with "I agree with what Diana, Marla, and Kevin said because......." Abraham is using the statements of his classmates to enhance and further his argument for why the printing press is important.
Students made inferences about a passage based on each other's information and previous knowledge. •They used each other as tools for learning to build knowledge-products.
The student learned how to fold the shirt from the instructor and made her interpretation of the lesson. She coud utilize the connectivism theory by changing or improving the steps to fold the shirt. THen she will teach her own version to the instructor. This way, there is a sharing of knowledge as one peer to another peer. Ana Wu
Connectivism is learning by using an open network of peers to build knowledge-products. Can teachers be considered a peer in this theory?
The student will utilize a combination of complex cognitive theory (transfer) and constructivism to learn to fold a shirt. She will use the knowledge she has from her personal life experiences to make inferences on the folding instructions and analyze how she might be able to make it better.
Ana Wu
Social Cognitive Theory says that learning happens within social context and is influenced by behavior and cognitive approaches.
Observation learning - gaining knowledge by watching others do a task

Done most effectively through modeling
Triadic Recipocity - The interaction between person, behavior, and environment that is not static, but yet, constantly in motion (cause and effect)
Self-efficacy - the perception one has about their lilihood to be successful in an endeavor - based solely off of belief and not at all off of experience
Good work with main ideas
note IPT does not address emotions in any way only cogntive elements, one reason it is incomplete
the burden on teacher and student is to find existing knowledge on which to start- it is the only way to build new knowledge
Interest is an emotion, not addressed here you will see some ideas in expectancy x value in social cogntive theroy and motivation upcoming
Good to use components of WM here!
Good
but repititon is the weakest path to LTM, ellaboraion and organization are better
you mean stored in LTM...fun ways to remember should be described as elaboration or organization, and not sure that students should be expected to d othis on their own- we can assist
Fine work here
Good
Good
Good!
what can you do to apply metacognition?
Piaget might say that but these theories do not make categorica lstatements about developmental capabilites, in fact you see the idea of "spiraling", or letting students access complex ideas even at youn ages
do you see an opportunity to adjust for your redesign?
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
self-regulation
was evident in the video when students attempted to use previous knowledge in order to solve the goal of finding the derivitive of the function. different stages of self-regulation: 1) forethought phase: they strategized on how to complete their task with themselves and the group; 2) performance phase: engaged in the task and processed information meaningfully 3) self reflection: evaluated their own behavior and worked together as a team
working in groups increased their self-efficacy because they are able to use each other as resources and take responsibility for their own learning. "i'm stuck" was no longer a reason for them to stop, rather it became a reason to talk with each other more.
Solving it made them feel good and confident knowing they were able to solve something independently.
triadic reciprocal causastion seen because students interact among each other and build off each other's ideas. This put things in different perspectives and allowed them to try different methods of approaching a problem. behavior is the result of interacting with their peers and the teacher as they attempt to solve the problem.
During this lesson, the students will be able to accomplish the performace of properly tying a tie by using 1/2 Windsor style method through

cumulative rehersal.
As was evidenced in the teaching video, the learner was able to take steps toward becoming a
self regulated learner
, being able to perform the task of properly tying a neck tie autonomously
(Snowman 2013)

Brian J. Keller

Through the series of
verbal persuasions
,
the child was convinced that he could
perform the task of tying a neck tie by
1/2 Windsor style.


After watching a model perform and describe the process of tying a neck tie by 1/2 Windsor style, the student will be able to perform this task of tying a neck tie by 1/2 Windsor method, with minimal cueing and mistakes.


Brian J. Keller
When the student tries to tie
a neck tie by 1/2 windsor style,
he makes connections to his
previous viewing and instruction
from his trainer.

Brian J. Keller
When the student was given a neck tie and told that they needed to tie this by half Windsor style around their neck, they realized a problem existed and they understood the nature of the problem.

The student in the video compiled relevant information, from short term memory, of how to tie a tie and then took the steps necessary to solve the problem of tying the tie by 1/2 Windsor style around their neck.



Brian J. Keller
The Student watches the teacher demonstrate the cognitive process of tying a neck tie by 1/2
Windsor style. The Teacher then gives the
responsibilty of tying the tie 1/2 Windsor
style to the student.

After given hints, more modeling and suggestions, the student is then left alone so that they can demonstrate their ability to perform the exercise. Throught the process of scafforlding, the student exhibits increased competence.

Brian J. Keller

The Student also views Youtube videos
with the instructor to watch others
perform the same task of tying a tie by
1/2 Windsor style.

Brian J. Keller
Tying a neck tie by 1/2 Windor style is a
method that requires
shaping
. In the video
demonstration, the student was guided in his attempts to autonomously tie a tie 1/2 Windsor style through shaping.

As the student was doing the task correclty, he was verbally reinforced and praised, as he moved closer to the desired final behavior.
(Snowman 2013)

Brian J. Keller
The Student was shown multimedia
tools, such as digitized videos on
Youtube, of how to tie a tie 1/2 Windsor
style(Snowman pp. 183).

After verbal instruction, video demonstration and coaching, the student was able to tie the tie 1/2 Windsor style, with minimal instruction.

Brian J. Keller


Tying a neck tie by
1/2 Windors style is psychological tool spoken of by Vygotsky. This is true because it is a memory technique or cognitive device.

(Snowman pp. 33)

Brian J. Keller

The 4 steps used in Scaffolding were
clearly evident in the demonstration of how to tie a tie by 1/2 Windsor style:

1.)
Desired behavior was modeled
2.)
Dialogue was created with the student
3.)
The student practiced the procedure
4.)
Successful completion of the procedure was confirmed by me the teacher to build trust
.

Snowman pp. 37


Brian J. Keller


Thinking about thinking of how to instruct others and being an instructor of tying a neck tie in multiple methods, is one of the only sensible ways in which metacognition is involed in this procedure.

Brian J. Keller
Because tying a neck tie is a simple
procedure and can be learned quickly, with minimal efforts, it is not very likely that complex cognitive processes are involved in this process.

If multiple methods of tying a neck tie were learned and taught to others, there would be more reason to claim that complex cognitive processes were at work.



Brian J. Keller
Good work
Can a student's self-efficacy ever be a problem that holds them back in their learning experience?
1) forethought: she sets the goal of becoming a teacher and forms strategies for herself (how she will be able to teach the instructor most effectively) 2) performance phase: the actual act of teaching the instructor how to fold the shirt while monitoring how the instructor follows instructions and answering questions along the way 3) self-reflection: student will evaluate her own behavior by the outcome of the teaching task. Was she able to properly convey what she was trying to teach? if not, why?

Ana Wu

Apprenticeship:
when a student learns throughout a long term relationship with a person considered to have expertise in a subject matter
Cognitive development is promoted by instruction in zone of proximal development


break down tasks into smaller pieces to create small proximal goals students can reach.
Vygotsky defines sociocultural learning as:
How we think based on current social forces and historical cultural forces (Snowman 2013)
For a toddler learning to count from 1 to 10 sociocultural learning, more specifically scaffolding happens when throughout the day, opportunities are taken to practice counting. If the student is counting tiles as she walks and skips one,

When explaining the project, the students were asked a serious of questions. When they had difficulty finding the answers, the teacher provided clues and hints, which ended in them getting the right answer. This is an example of scaffolding because the students might not have been able to come up with the English names for these projects on their own since it is not their first language.
Amy Schlachterman
The instructor, as the more knowledgeable individual, supports the student to help her complete the given task that she is otherwise unable to do so herself. Through this interaction, the student can learn to master the origami task.
Ana Wu
the adult with her will correct her. If she is counting steps as she goes down them and stumbles over a number, an adult within earshot will tell her how to correctly pronounce the number.

Candace Jones
Zone of Proximal Development:
"sweet spot" where student learns best

Strategies in applying sociocultural theory in classrooms:
Scaffolding:
Build a general lesson and build on tasks that have more individual scaffolding (such as making something slightly easier or harder)


Provide hints and strategies students can use in order to guide them towards the goal they wish to reach.
What are some pedagogical strategies instructors can use to apply scaffolding while teaching an entirely new subject?
Students don't have all of the same Zone of Proximity, so how can a summative answer be made challenging for everyone...not too hard...not too easy?
Cognitive development strongly influenced by those more intellectually advanced
Psychological tools:

cognitive devices and procedures with which we communicate and explore the world around us (Snowman 2013)
If teaching is too difficult, student will have anxiety.


If teaching is too difficult, student will have anxiety.


The more knowledgeable individual actively participates in the activity being learned and gradually steps back until the student no longer needs guidance
Good 5/5
I agree 5/5
best to have examples of language so we can see better
5/5

Through constant interaction between the teacher and their peers, students are able to gage their own zone of proximal development. This can be seen when they attempt to construct a way to get a ball into a well 1.5 meters away.
teacher dynamically assessed the students when they discussed what they did wrong/why they failed to get the ball into the well and what they could do next time to possibly improve the outcome. He was able to see where their ZPD was.
your pedagogy is constructivist more so than the activity itself- it could be taugh twith behaviorist or social cognitive theories too
Good 5/5
5/5
Good 5/5
"Social dimension of consciousness is primarily time and in fact. The individual dimension of consciousness is derivative and secondary" -– Vygotsky
teacher was able to apply the idea of funds of knowledge by 1) giving real life scenarios (construct an oil rig within 10 minutes to appreciate the time constraint real architects have in real life); and 2) affirm their goals to go to college and be successful
This played a significant role in their success in the classroom. The funds of knowledge support the teacher gave them increased their possible zone of proximity, causing individuals to have a higher individual skill range and consequently their success
Learning was done either in groups or with the whole class. Learning is a cognitive development through social interaction. As a result, individual learning occurred.
This is an example of both scaffolding and apprenticeship.
1) Apprenticeship: the instructor takes steps with the student to fold the shirt. There is an active role of the instructor giving instruction of how to do it.
2) scaffolding: without the instructor's instructions, the student would not be able to fold the shirt. tThe instructor mediates the student's learning as they share knowledge through social intearction (snowman, 2013)
i would also love to know the answer to this question !!!
-Ana
Other Cognitive Views of Motivation
Social Cognitive View of Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation: partaking in an activity to receive a reward from an outside factor.

ex. praise from the teacher
Intrinsic Motivation: desire to learn or achieve more for self-fulfillment

ex. studying to become more knowledgeable
Three Dangers:
1. Only temporary changes in behavior
2. Develop a materialistic towards learning
3. Extrinsic rewards takes away from possible intrinsic motivation
Behavioral View of Motivation
Motivation to learn a behavior comes from observing the consequences given to others exhibiting the behavior
Self-efficacy affects motivation through influence on learning goals selection, expected outcomes, and explanations for successes and failures
High self-efficacy: attribute failures with insufficient efforts (ignoring ability), attribute successes to combination of ability and effort
High self-efficacy: expect a positive outcome, so individuals are more willing to use more time-consuming and complex learning skill and work through difficulties
Learning goals: a task mastery goal, a performance-approach goal, a performance-avoidance goal, or a combination of task mastery and performance-approach goals
Low self-efficacy: expect a negative outcome, so individuals lean towards easier learning skills and give up when facing difficulties
Low self-efficacy: attribute failures with not having the ability, attribute successes to luck or "an easy task."
The students were motivated extrinsically to repeat the steps in the friendship bracelet design by observing their peers receiving a piece of candy after repeating the steps. This falls into the Social Cognitive view of Motivation.
Amy Schlachterman
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Good with Main Ideas 5/5
Absolutely
Good example of triadic reciprocity
5/5
Good concrete example
need more concreteness
5/5
Self-efficacy is always in play inside or outside of school

how can you increase self-efficacy

4/5
Good 5/5
Good 5/5
nice with main ideas 5/5
Short answer is you cannot! Students are not 'they' but a bunch of "he and she". However, through discussion and collaboration, all students can find their ZPD and begin to internalize the social language- i.e. learn!
Outlines, rubrics, worked examples, templates are all artifacts that represent more general scafolding practices. Discussion is a general pedagogy.
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Good 5/5
Good 5/5
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Doesn't this sound like behaviorism/direct instruction?
Scaffloding is helping her do it, not correcting her or praising her when she does it right or wrong

For example if you taught her a melody with all the numbers, later she could recite without the melody. or if you write the numbers on her fingers left to right and then later washed it off. That is a scaffold that has been removed
4/5
Expectancy vs. Value theory:
-motivation exists on dimensions of quality and quantity
-Quantity: expectancy x value = motivation.
expectancy: how easy/hard is it?
value: is it useful/intersting?
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