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classifying organisms. D.5.2 Explain the biochemical evidence provided by the universality of DNA and protein structures for the common ancestry of living organisms. 5.3 Explain how variations in specific molecules can indicate phylogeny 5.4 Discuss how biochemical variations can be used as an evolutionary clock Info like this can help group organisms in trees of descent and suggest how long ago they had a common gene pool Classification arranges organisms into groups which facilitates the identification of species, allows the prediction of characteristics of an organism in a group based on the characteristics of other organisms in that group and shows evolutionary links from common ancestors. It also allows for better communication between scientists because it is a universal way of classifying organisms. Every living organism has DNA and uses the same 20 amino acids suggesting that all life forms have a common ancestor. Also, enzymes that are found in organisms have comparable amino acid structures. Comparing DNA and protein structure can be helpful to finding ancestry in a more direct way because it shows how different two organisms are. Phylogeny-evolutionary development and diversification of a species or group of organisms or of a particular feature of an organism Mutations are random changes in gene structure but they occur at a mostly predictable rate. Generally the more differences between amino acid sequences of a common protein further in the past 2 species has a common ancestor 5.4 cont. Proteins are genetically determined. So a close match in amino acid sequence of 2 proteins from different species indicates that the genes in those proteins evolved from a gene in a shared ancestor. EX. Haemoglobin of gorillas differ by one amino acid from humans and elephants differ by 26. So elephants separated form a common ancestor longer ago than elephants First check a specific protein and know that mutations occur at a certain rate. Count how many mutations there are in that specific protein and then calculate how many yrs the organism has evolved Ex. 10 mutations and mutations occur every 5ooo yrs in this protein
10*5000=50000yrs How to calculate