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Cellular Respiration Glycolysis and Fermentation-Biology

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by

Wendy Simpson

on 10 December 2015

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis and Fermentation-Biology

Cellular Respiration
Introduction
Glycolysis
Without Oxygen
Or
Respiration
Fermentation
With Oxygen
"Sugar Cutting"
9-1 Chemical Pathways:
Cellular Respiration
Mitochondrion
Plant Cells
Animal Cells
Plant
Animal
Food serves as a source of raw materials for the cells in the body and as a source of energy.
9-1 Chemical Pathways
Matrix
Inner membrane
Intermembrane space
Outer membrane
Mitochondrion
Animal Cells
Both plant and animal cells carry out the final stages of cellular respiration in the mitochondria.
Plant Cells

One gram of the glucose, when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy.

A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
Chemical Energy and Food

What is cellular respiration?
Overview of Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis
Glucose
Electrons carried
in NADH and
FADH2
Electrons carried in NADH
Mitochondrion
Pyruvic acid
Cytoplasm
Overview of Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Overview of Cellular Respiration
The equation for cellular respiration is:
6O + C H O → 6CO + 6H O + Energy
oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + Energy

What was the equation for Photosynthesis?
Overview of Cellular Respiration
Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place in the mitochondria.
Glucose
2 ATP
2 Pyruvic acid
4 ATP
4 ADP
2 ADP
ATP Production
At the beginning of glycolysis, the cell uses up 2 molecules of ATP to start the reaction.
Glycolysis
2
2 ATP
2 ADP
4 ATP
4 ADP
2 Pyruvic acid
2NAD+
To the electron transport chain
The NADH molecule holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules.
Glycolysis
The Advantages of Glycolysis

The process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few milliseconds.

Glycolysis does not require oxygen.
Glycolysis
When oxygen is not present, or isn't high enough to meet demand, glycolysis is followed by an anaerobic pathway.

Anaerobic-

Fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation

What are the two main types of fermentation?
Fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation
Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.

The equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis is:

pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO + NAD+
Fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation
In many cells, pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.

The equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis is:

pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+
Fermentation
The second part shows the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid.
Fermentation
The raw materials required for cellular respiration are
carbon dioxide and oxygen.
glucose and water.
glucose and oxygen.
carbon dioxide and water.
9-1
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The raw materials required for cellular respiration are
carbon dioxide and oxygen.
glucose and water.
glucose and oxygen.
carbon dioxide and water.
9-1
Glycolysis occurs in the
mitochondria.
cytoplasm.
nucleus.
chloroplasts.
9-1
The net gain of ATP molecules after glycolysis is
3 ATP molecules.
2 ATP molecules.
3 pyruvic acid molecules.
4 pyruvic acid molecules
9-1
Fermentation releases energy from food molecules in the absence of
oxygen.
glucose.
NADH.
alcohol.
9-1
The first step in fermentation is always
lactic acid production.
the Krebs cycle.
glycolysis.
alcohol production.
9-1
END OF SECTION
In which forms is the energy in food stored?
2
2
12
6
2
2
Glycolysis
2
Full transcript