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Islam Art and Architecture

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kirby rhodes

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Islam Art and Architecture

by Colleen Morris, Tanique Philogene, Kirby Rhodes, & Michelle Odonkor ISLAMIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE Dome of the Rock Location: Jerusalem
Built to commemorate Muhammad's ascension into heaven
The rock inside the building is the Foundation Stone where Muhammad ascended
Represents the rise in the new Islamic Empire
Marker of Abd al-Malik's success as the Caliph (built the Dome) Octagonal Shape
Walls feature quronic quotes
Octagon is 240 meters long (length signifies the superiority and strength of Islam)
Ornate decorations (Persian influence): gold, mosaic, tiles
Islamic faith is expressed in the lack of portraits Islamic Music: Handasah al Sawt "The Art of Sound" Some Muslims fear the "magical" powers of music, but others find it spiritual
A hadith states that Muhammad told Abu Bakr to leave two singing girls alone after Bakr chastized them
Qur'anic chants of the Tawhid are acceptable Characteristics of Islamic Music Focuses on creating patterns
Less focus on worldly things (distract from God)
Static style (no large changes or beginning or endings)
Intricate rythm, accents, and trills (Arabesque style portryaing Allah's characteristics) Musical Instruments Daf/Tonbak: drums/tamborine
Rebab: string instrument played with a bow
Ney: woodwind with five holes in front and one in back
Anasheed: hymnal verses (vocal music) which explain the history of the Islamic faith and quote the Qur'an Arabesque History Term "arabesque" was coined in the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans became intereseted in Islamic art
Arabesque was not widely used until the Golden Age of Islam when ancient texts were translated from Greek/Latin into Arabic
Abbassid Dynasty (mid 8th to mid 13th century) Description Geometric patterns/designs/shapes
no images of people/nature
extremely intricate/detailed
All medias: ceramic tiles, brickwork, tapestry, metalwork, stucco, mosiac, stonework, painting
Decorations on illuminated manuscripts, walls, furniture, interiors/exteriors of buildings, esp. mosques Significance Represents a simple life close to nature
Expresses unity of Islam and Allah
Expresses Tawhid and Islamic cultural/political identity
Endless patterns symbolize the eternal nature of Allah
Geometric patterns and repetition induce one to meditate on the infinite/complex nature of Allah
Floral/geometric/calligraphic arabesque are carriers of pleasure and mediators between human nature and culture Taj Mahal The Kaaba http://www.altiusdirectory.com/Arts/taj-mahal.html http://annaba.deviantart.com/art/Al-Kaaba-88955105 http://www.iatraf.co.il/showthread.php?t=478025 http://www.keeptravels.com/taj-mahal-muslim-art-in-india.html http://www.tajindiatours.com/tajmahal-tour/tajmahal-gateway.php http://travel.ogate.com/travel-center/travel-guides/taj-mahal-crowning-jewel-indoislamic-architecture http://bujangmasjid.blogspot.com/2011/12/masjid-taj-mahal-india.html Blue Mosque Sultanahmet Mosque http://www.globeimages.net/img-blue-mosque-,-turkey-travel-14568.htm http://www.bluemosque.co/ http://www.bluemosque.co/exterior.html http://luxuryplaces.blogspot.com/2012/06/blue-mosque-istanbul-in-turkey.html http://falcobain.deviantart.com/art/Inside-the-Blue-Mosque-97375513 http://freespiiriit.blogspot.com/2011/11/umrah-first-part-of-hajj.html#!/
2011/11/umrah-first-part-of-hajj.html http://www.thaimuslim.com/overview.php?id=8402 Facts History Architecture Builder: Shah Jahan
Dedicated to: Shah Jahan's wife - Mumtaz Mahal
Years of Construction: 1631-1653
Cost: 32 million rupees (equivalent of approximately $600,000)
Location: Agra, India
Highlights: Seventh Wonder of the World & UNESCO World Heritage Site Calligraphy History Calligraphy Calligraphy Religious Meaning Quranic Use Important, noble, most revered form of Islamic art
A form of religious expression that replaced Islamic artwork portraying specific people or things (considered insensitive and disrespectful)
Can be seen in Islamic sacred places (e.g. the Kaaba in Mecca and within the Quran)
The Quran, written in Arabic calligraphy, is the visual expression of the Divine “Arabic calligraphy is a symbol representing power and beauty. Through the abstract beauty of the lines, energy flows in between the letters and words. All the parts are integrated into a whole. Arabic calligraphy is not merely an art form but involves divine and moral representations” Standard form of this script used around the end of the 7th century
First form of calligraphy used on the Dome of the Rock in 691 AD Over a span of 1 400 years, Arabic calligraphy has evolved to include many different scripts and styles, appearing in the written form as well as in architecture, sculpture, ceramics, textiles and glassware. History Religious Significance Architecture Originally a polytheist monument
Converted to a Muslim shrine "when Muhammad's forces conquered Mecca in 630"
Muslims interpret Quran to say that Adam built the foundations of the Kaaba, and Abraham and Ishmael rebuilt it
"Has been destroyed, damaged, and... rebuilt several times" "considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most sacred spot on Earth" Located in Great Mosque in Mecca
Sacred site during the Hajj
Contains the Black Stone Black Stone Located in the eastern corner of the Kaaba
When Adam was kicked out of paradise, he was given the Black Stone
Its "now-broken pieces are surrounded by a ring of stone and held together by a heavy silver band" "Legend has it that the stone was originally white but has become black by absorbing the sins of the countless thousands of pilgrims who have kissed and touched it" Cubic
50 feet high with a 35 x 40 foot base
"Constructed of gray stone and marble, it is oriented so that its corners roughly correspond to the points of the compass."
Covered by the kiswah (a black decorative cloth)
On the interior, the roof is supported by 3 pillars and adorned with hanging silver and gold lamps "Depending on what time of the day it is and whether or not there's moon at night, Taj Mahal appears to be of different color every time."
Built completely of white marble
Decorated with approximately 28 different types of semi-precious and precious stones
Decorated with various passages of the Quran
5 main sectors "a monument with a unique blend of Persian, Islamic, and Indian architectural styles" Darwaza (Main Gateway) Decorated with calligraphic verses from the Quran
Made of sandstone with a door of solid silver
Vertically symmetrical Rauza (Main Mausoleum) Naqqar Khana (Rest House) & Masjid (Mosque) Bageecha (Gardens) Mughal architecture
Square-shaped with four 137 ft minarets at each corner and an 81 ft high dome
Decorated with black marble
The tombs of both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan are located inside "a shadowy burial crypt" below the main chamber
Main chamber contains false tombs and porous marble screens that allow in light
Both tombs decorated with semi-precious stones
Mumtaz Mahal's tomb decorated by calligraphic inscriptions of the 99 names of Allah Made of red sandstone
Naqqar Khana is on the western side of Rauza, and Masjid is on the eastern side
Provide symmetry and color contrast to the Taj Mahal
Purpose of Naqqar Khana is unclear
Accommodation for visitors recognizing Mumtaz Mahal's death anniversary
Rest house for weary pilgrims
Assembly hall for prayer Islamic style architecture "that symbolizes spirituality and according to the Holy Quran, the lush green, well watered is a symbol of Paradise in Islam"
Divided into 4 quarters with 16 flowerbeds in each and approximately 400 plants in each bed
Contains only cyprus and fruit-bearing trees
Cyprus trees symbolize death
Fruit-bearing trees symbolize life Mughal emperor Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built in honor and memory of his late wife Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal was buried in the mausoleum and was later joined by Shah Jahan
During the Indian rebellion of 1857, the Taj Mahal was damaged when British soldiers and government officials removed precious stones and lapis lazuli from the monument, but it was restored by 1908 http://www.tajmahal.org.uk/ Facts Located in Istanbul, Turkey
Acquired its name from the blue tiles on its walls
Comprised of a tomb of the founder, a madrasa (school for the study of Islam), and a hospice History Built at the location of the palaces of the Byzantine emperors
Built by Sultan Ahmed I after the Peace of Zsitvatorok of 1606 and the wars with Persia, but completed by his successor Mustafa I "first great imperial mosque to be built in more than forty years" Architecture Though traditionally Islamic, the architecture has Ottoman and Byzantine influences "aims for overwhelming size, majesty and splendour" Interior Exterior Minarets Lower level lined with ceramic tiles with over 50 designs
Upper levels painted blue and lavished with stained glass windows
Decorated with calligraphic verses from the Quran
Carpeted floors
Each exedra (relaxation room with a continuous bench lining the wall) has 5 windows
The mihrab (niche pointing toward Mecca) is made of marble
The minber (Imam's pulpit) is strategically placed so that the Imam can be seen and heard from anywhere in the mosque (even when it is crowded)
Tablets on the walls scribed with verses of the Quran and names of caliphs Large forecourt "surrounded by a continuous vaulted arcade" with "turrets on the corner domes"
Small hexagonal fountain in the center of the courtyard
A heavy iron chain hangs in the western entrance 6 minarets
4 minarets at the corners of the mosque
"Each of these fluted, pencil-shaped minarets has three balconies with stalactite corbels, while the two others at the end of the forecourt only have two balconies"
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