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Story of the Soviet Union
Transcript of Story of the Soviet Union
The economy was in tatters. Wide gaps between social classes; poverty widespread.
Bloody Sunday - 22nd January 1905
Rasputin and Stolypin.
The impact of the First World War. 'Down with the monarchy!' Protestors from the February Revolution. February Consistent strikes and military mutinies in Petrograd led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the setting up of the Provisional Committee. But the Provisional Government failed despite its reforms:
It wasn't chosen/elected to lead the country.
Russia did not withdraw from WW1.
Poverty was still widespread.
Soldiers were deserting. 'Soviets' (workers' unions) were set up and fought for added rights. The July Days The Kornilov Revolt After months of Trotsky's careful planning, on 24th October 1917 the Bolsheviks, their Red Guards and other forces moved onto the Winter Palace. With all soldiers on the war front and the country in chaos, there was little to no resistance. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Negotiated by Leon Trotsky Civil War Yakov Sverdlov, the Red Terror and the Cheka
250,000 Executions The Whites and the Czech Legion The Greens Importance of the Trans-Siberian Railway IRAU - Anarchist Blacks Foreign Intervention Temporary Independence of Poland, Finland, Lithuania etc. War Communism and the Kronstadt Naval Rebellion, 1921 The New Economic Policy Editorial Post at Pravda 1922 - General Secretary Cult of Stalin Purges - Culminating in Trotsky, 1940 5-Year Plans Industrialisation The NKVD and the Gulags Collectivism and Changes in Agriculture Gosplan Opportunities for Women Success of the Five-Year Plans - Improvements in Production Between 1928 and 1937:
Coal - 36 million tonnes to 130 million tonnes.
Iron - 3 million tonnes to 15 million tonnes.
Oil - 2 million tonnes to 29 million tonnes.
Electricity - 5,000 kilowatts to 36,000 kilowatts. The Beginnings of the Cold War Second World War Stalingrad 1942-43 Conferences of the 'Big Three'(Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill):
1945 San Francisco Allied Conference resulted in development of UN. Tensions rise in Postdam Conference; Truman reveals 'powerful new weapon' to be used against Japan. The USSR dominated Eastern Europe by the end of the Second World War, and so by directly annexing them the 'Eastern Bloc' countries became satellite states to the Soviet Union. This developed into the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Cold War Timeline 1 (WW2 - Death of Stalin)
The Long Telegram (Feb. 1946)
Churchill's Missouri (Fulton) 'Iron Curtain Speech (1946)
Cominform (Sep. 1947)
Containment and the Truman Doctrine (Greece & Turkey - 1947)
Marshall Plan (June 1947)
Czech Coup (1948)
Josep Tito's Yugoslavia (June 1948)
Bizonia (Jan 1, 1947); Trizonia (1949)
Berlin Airlifts (June 24, 1948 – May 12, 1949); Operation Vittles
NATO (April 1949)
Chinese Civil War; Mao Zedong; Mainland/Taiwan Split; SEATO (1949)
Korean War; Kim II Sung's Invasion (June 1950 - July 1953)
5th March 1953 - Death of Stalin A Map of Europe in 1950 After Stalin's death, Nikita Khrushchev, the son of a coal miner, took power in the USSR after a complex power struggle. His era, 1958-1964, was arguably the climax of the Cold War. Khrushchev had a strict policy of de-Stalinisation and many of his policies seemed controversial to the Russian people. This sudden change in views also encouraged the Sino-Soviet split. Cold War Timeline 2 - Khrushchev's Leadership
Eisenhower Is Inaugrated as President (1953)
Soviets Establish Formal 'Warsaw Pact' Alliance with Eastern Bloc Countries (1955)
Hungarian Revolution After Removal of Matyas Rakosi - 200,000 Flee (1956)
[Suez Crisis (1956)]
Berlin Ultimatum (Nov. 1958)
Operation Ajax (1953)
Guatemalan Coup (1954)
First ICBMs (Soviet - Aug. 1957)
Sputnik (Oct. 1957) -- Space Race
Cuban Revolution (Jan. 1959)
JFK Inaugrated (Jan. 1961)
Bay of Pigs Invasion (US CIA Backed - April 1961)
Berlin Crisis of 1961 (Increasing Emigration and 'Brain Drain')
First Form of Berlin Wall Built (Aug. 13 1961)
Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 1962)
Khrushchev Ousted (1964) Famous Khrushchev Quotes
'Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury you.'
'Berlin is the testicles of the West. Every time I want to make the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin.' During the 1960s and '70s, the nature of international politics changed: no longer were the US and USSR at each others' throats; instead, their relationship developed into one of an uneasy peace: detente. The Space Race Sputnik, first artificial satellite, Soviets, 1957.
Laika, first animal in space, Soviets, 1957.
Yuri Gagarin, first man in space, Soviets, 1961.
Neil Armstrong, first man on the Moon, US, 1969. Leonid Brezhnev 1964-1982 Tripartite Directorate: French NATO Withdrawal 1966 Prague Spring and Invasion (AUG.) 1968 - 300,000 emigrations Brezhnev Doctrine - September 1968 February 1972 - Sino-American Rapprochement Dec. 1979 - Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Second Cold War Gorbachev's Rise to power - 1985 Glasnost Perestroika